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Moradi B.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research | Botte G.G.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2016

Abstract: Graphite is currently the state-of-the-art anode material for most of the commercial lithium ion batteries. Among different types of natural graphite, flake graphite has been recently recognized as one of the critical materials due to the predicted future market growth of lithium ion batteries for vehicular applications. Current status and future demand of flake graphite in the market are discussed. It was found that flake graphite could become a critical material in the near future for countries such as the United States and members of the European Union with no graphite production. Recycling of flake graphite from its different waste resources is proposed as a potential solution to meet the future demand of graphite. The current status of graphite anodes in the present recycling technologies of spent lithium ion batteries was reviewed. The limitation of current technologies and a new perspective towards the future concept of “battery recycling” were also pointed out. Challenges in recycling battery grade flake graphite from spent lithium ion batteries and possible research opportunities in this regard were introduced. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Estejab A.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research | Botte G.G.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry | Year: 2016

Density functional theory calculations were performed on four platinum-iridium clusters, Pt3 - xIrx (x = 0-3) to examine ammonia oxidation in alkaline media. The adsorption of NH3 - x (x = 0-3) on these clusters and the effect of cluster composition on the adsorption were investigated. The hybrid B3LYP level of theory was used in Gaussian 09 along with the LANL2DZ and 6-311++g basis sets.The HOMO-LUMO energy gap on bare metal clusters showed that increasing the iridium concentration decreased the energy gap, a sign of a more reactive catalyst. The relative adsorption energy showed more stability of NH3 - x on the Ir3 cluster and less stability as the number of platinum atoms increased in the cluster. These results combined with activation and dissociation energy calculations of sequential dehydrogenation reactions showed that Ir3 is more active than Pt3 for ammonia oxidation, and the addition of iridium to platinum makes a more favorable pathway for the ammonia oxidation reaction. The computational calculations suggest the possibility of two different mechanisms of ammonia oxidation on platinum and iridium electrocatalysts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Miller A.T.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research | Hassler B.L.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research | Botte G.G.,Center for Electrochemical Engineering Research
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry | Year: 2012

A procedure for the constant potential electrodeposition of rhodium onto nickel electrodes, the subsequent surface characterizations, and electrochemical evaluation is presented. The resulting Ni/Rh electrodes were evaluated for their activity as anode catalysts for the electro-oxidation of urea. A detailed procedure for the electrodeposition of Rh onto Ni foil is provided. It is shown that the electrocatalytic performance of Ni/Rh electrodes on the oxidation of urea in alkaline medium is primarily influenced by two electrodeposition parameters: the applied electrodeposition potential and the loading of Rh (mg cm -2). An optimization for electrocatalytic performance based on the electrodeposition potential and Rh loading is demonstrated. The effect of these parameters on visual finish, surface morphology, and crystal structure was also studied. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012. Source

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