Lehmann H.,University of Bologna |
Lehmann H.,German Institute for Economic Research |
Wadsworth J.,IZA |
Wadsworth J.,University of London |
Wadsworth J.,Center for Economic Performance
Journal of Health Economics | Year: 2011
Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of exposure to the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. Variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive association between local area-level radiation dosage and perception of poor health, though much weaker associations between local area-level dosage and other specific self-reported health conditions. There is also some evidence to suggest that those who lived in areas more exposed to Chernobyl-induced radiation have significantly lower levels of labour market performance 20 years on. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Gyani A.,University of Reading |
Shafran R.,University of Reading |
Layard R.,Center for Economic Performance |
Clark D.M.,University of Oxford
Behaviour Research and Therapy | Year: 2013
Background: The English Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) initiative aims to make evidence-based psychological therapies for depression and anxiety disorder more widely available in the National Health Service (NHS). 32 IAPT services based on a stepped care model were established in the first year of the programme. We report on the reliable recovery rates achieved by patients treated in the services and identify predictors of recovery at patient level, service level, and as a function of compliance with National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Treatment Guidelines. Method: Data from 19,395 patients who were clinical cases at intake, attended at least two sessions, had at least two outcomes scores and had completed their treatment during the period were analysed. Outcome was assessed with the patient health questionnaire depression scale (PHQ-9) and the anxiety scale (GAD-7). Results: Data completeness was high for a routine cohort study. Over 91% of treated patients had paired (pre-post) outcome scores. Overall, 40.3% of patients were reliably recovered at post-treatment, 63.7% showed reliable improvement and 6.6% showed reliable deterioration. Most patients received treatments that were recommended by NICE. When a treatment not recommended by NICE was provided, recovery rates were reduced. Service characteristics that predicted higher reliable recovery rates were: high average number of therapy sessions; higher step-up rates among individuals who started with low intensity treatment; larger services; and a larger proportion of experienced staff. Conclusions: Compliance with the IAPT clinical model is associated with enhanced rates of reliable recovery. © 2013 The Authors.
Criscuolo C.,Center for Economic Performance |
Haskel J.E.,Imperial College Business School
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2010
Globally engaged firms (multinational enterprises or exporters) tend to have higher productivity than their purely-domestic counterparts. We examine a UK firm data set where we have measures of global engagement linked to innovation/knowledge outputs, knowledge investments, and sources of existing knowledge. We find that globally engaged firms innovate more. But this is not just because globally engaged firms use more researchers. It is also because they learn more from their intra-firm worldwide pool of information (consistent with many recent theories of multi-nationals) and from suppliers, customers and universities. We also find that the relative importance of knowledge sources varies systematically with the type of innovation. © 2009.
Van Reenen J.,Center for Economic Performance
Oxford Review of Economic Policy | Year: 2013
What was the productivity record under the Labour government of 1997-2010? I show that productivity growth (and economic performance in general) was good when the UK is compared with its main international peers. Only the US had stronger productivity growth and the UK did better than the US in terms of the jobs market. Much of this improved performance was a continuation of the pattern since 1979 which broke a century of relative decline. Some part of the improvement is directly linked to policies, especially over human capital, innovation, and competition. We discuss the recent 'productivity puzzle'-the disappointing productivity figures since the onset of the Great Recession in 2008-and argue that our conclusions are unchanged as most other OECD countries have also experienced poor measured productivity. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.
Van Reenen J.,Center for Economic Performance
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2011
A classic question in industrial organization is whether competition raises productivity and if so, through what mechanism? I discuss recent empirical evidence from both large-scale databases and specific industries which suggests that tougher competition does indeed raise productivity and one of the main mechanisms is through improving management practices. To establish this, I report on new research seeking to quantify management. I relate this to theoretical perspectives on the economics of competition and management, arguing that management should be seen at least in part as a transferable technology. A range of recent econometric studies suggests that (i) competition increases management quality and (ii) improved management quality boosts productivity. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.