Center for Economic Development

Oulu, Finland

Center for Economic Development

Oulu, Finland
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Ventela A.-M.,Pyhajarvi Institute | Kirkkala T.,Pyhajarvi Institute | Lendasse A.,Aalto University | Tarvainen M.,Pyhajarvi Institute | And 2 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

Säkylän Pyhäjärvi (SW Finland) is an example of a large and shallow lake suffering from eutrophication. During the last 20 years, the quality and general usability of water in Pyhäjärvi have shown considerable variation driven by both a variety of human activities and climate-related factors such as wet and dry years. The lake has been thoroughly studied for decades and has been the object of comprehensive restoration activities both in the catchment and in the lake since the 1990s. Large variety of water protection measures like wetlands, sedimentation ponds and filtering systems have been implemented in the catchment area to reduce external nutrient load. Another important tool for Pyhäjärvi restoration is biomanipulation, done by local commercial fishermen in winter. Twenty-five percent of the annual phosphorus input is removed with fish catch. Currently, restoration work is facing new challenges: short or even nearly missing ice cover period and increased winter time nutrient load from the catchment. In the 2000s, there were 3 years with exceptionally short ice period, allowing only brief winter seining periods. Consequently, the biomanipulation catch was very low in 2007 and 2008 leading to observable food web effects. Phosphorus load was especially high in winters 2006/2007 and 2008/2009. On the basis of the data of 1987-2008, we have tested the hypothesis if climate-related winter time variables like phosphorus load, air temperature and precipitation would affect the water quality of the lake in following summer, here measured as chlorophyll a concentration in the lake water. A linear model has been used and a validation procedure has been performed to select the best variables. Our results indicate some of the linkages between climate-related catchment processes and the ecological status of the lake. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Vuorenmaa J.,Finnish Environment Institute | Salonen K.,University of Helsinki | Salonen K.,University of Jyväskylä | Arvola L.,University of Helsinki | And 3 more authors.
Boreal Environment Research | Year: 2014

Small headwater lakes reflect the changes in atmospheric pollution, and are also indicators of climate change. This study examined water chemistry changes in a pristine small lake in southern Finland during the period 1990-2009. Recovery from acidification was indicated, while no major changes in trace metal concentrations were found. In the course of the study, total phosphorus concentration was fluctuating in deteriorated oxygen conditions in the hypolimnion. However, total and organic nitrogen remained stable, but inorganic nitrogen concentration increased during the period, and was more dependent on the hydrology and in-lake processes than nitrogen deposition. Dissolved organic and inorganic carbon concentrations also increased, presumably due to decreasing acidity and changes in runoff, and increased alkalinity and decreased phytoplankton production, respectively. The results emphasise the importance of integrated intensive long-term monitoring of physical, chemical and biological variables for detecting impacts of changing environmental conditions. © 2014.

Polonen I.,University of Eastern Finland | Hokkanen P.,Center for Economic Development | Jalava K.,University of Jyväskylä
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011

The article summarises the results of a multidisciplinary research project on the effectiveness of the Finnish EIA system. It examines the main strengths and weaknesses of EIA as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. The study concludes that EIA has achieved a meaningful role in the environmental policy toolbox in Finland and has clearly enhanced the possibilities for high-quality environmental decision making. The research cites the liaison authority system as a clear strength of the Finnish EIA system in its enabling a single regional authority to specialise in and gain wide experience on EIA issues. In examining potential weaknesses of the regime, the article concludes that the key constraint on EIA effectiveness is inadequacy of the action-forcing mechanisms at the decision-making phase. The primary means to improve the effectiveness of EIA would be to strengthen the legal provisions on development consents. On the whole, the research indicates that the EU and Finnish legislation and guidance on environmental impact assessment provide a good framework for effective utilisation of the instrument. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Jalava K.,University of Jyväskylä | Polonen I.,University of Eastern Finland | Hokkanen P.,Center for Economic Development | Kuitunen M.,University of Jyväskylä
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal | Year: 2013

This article examines whether and how the practice of environmental impact assessments (EIAs) serves the idea of the precautionary principle. The article provides an empirical examination and description of how uncertainties and risks were dealt with in conclusive outputs of EIAs of chosen example cases of Finnish waste incineration projects. The analysis focuses on the time when several incineration projects were in the planning phase in Finland and the effects of this development were seen as being controversial. The findings of the analysis are evaluated against a legislative and theoretical framework. The challenges and strengths of the practice are identified. The article suggests that EIA as an environmental policy tool can promote the pursuit and the application of the precautionary principle. In addition, uncertainty analysis and risk communication in EIA could benefit from a shift towards more collaborative knowledge-making. © 2013 IAIA.

Kanninen A.,University of Jyväskylä | Vallinkoski V.-M.,Center for Economic Development | Leka J.,Valonia Service Center for Sustainable Development and Energy Issues of Southwest Finland | Marjomaki T.J.,University of Jyväskylä | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2013

To compare the performance of two common methods for surveying boreal lake aquatic macrophyte communities (the transect survey and the phytolittoral inventory) in lake bioassessment, we studied five small humic lakes with both methods. In addition to this pairwise comparison, we contrasted available independent sets of reference lake data of either methodological origin. Specifically, we compared the observed species richness and a number of ecological quality (community) metrics and their variability both between the methods and within them in relation to sampling effort and operator. With the phytolittoral inventory, more taxa (mean 38.8 ± s.d. 12.1) were observed than with transect survey (29.8 ± 6.5) in a shorter time. Ecological quality metrics relying on taxonomic composition were sensitive to variation both between (reference lake data: t-test, p< 0.001) and within methods (metric values varied with sample size), whereas a trophy-specific metric based on indicator species was more robust in this respect (ref. lakes: t-test, p= 0.788; minor variation with sample size). The two methods did not differ in among-observer variation (CV of community metrics 5.0-8.7), which was, as indicated by an NMDS ordination, relatively low compared to among-lake variation. Overall, the results highlight the importance of establishing reference conditions using unified methods, which are also consistent with those used in the macrophyte-based ecological assessments. Even though the more cost efficient phytolittoral inventory method is more suitable for biodiversity surveys focusing on the overall species richness and rare species, we suggest that the transect survey better meets the requirements of ecological status assessment, as it produces information also on the zonation of the littoral vegetation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gronroos M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Gronroos M.,University of Oulu | Heino J.,Finnish Environment Institute | Heino J.,University of Oulu | And 5 more authors.
Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Within a metacommunity, both environmental and spatial processes regulate variation in local community structure. The strength of these processes may vary depending on species traits (e.g., dispersal mode) or the characteristics of the regions studied (e.g., spatial extent, environmental heterogeneity). We studied the metacommunity structuring of three groups of stream macroinvertebrates differing in their overland dispersal mode (passive dispersers with aquatic adults; passive dispersers with terrestrial adults; active dispersers with terrestrial adults). We predicted that environmental structuring should be more important for active dispersers, because of their better ability to track environmental variability, and that spatial structuring should be more important for species with aquatic adults, because of stronger dispersal limitation. We sampled a total of 70 stream riffle sites in three drainage basins. Environmental heterogeneity was unrelated to spatial extent among our study regions, allowing us to examine the effects of these two factors on metacommunity structuring. We used partial redundancy analysis and Moran's eigenvector maps based on overland and watercourse distances to study the relative importance of environmental control and spatial structuring. We found that, compared with environmental control, spatial structuring was generally negligible, and it did not vary according to our predictions. In general, active dispersers with terrestrial adults showed stronger environmental control than the two passively dispersing groups, suggesting that the species dispersing actively are better able to track environmental variability. There were no clear differences in the results based on watercourse and overland distances. The variability in metacommunity structuring among basins was not related to the differences in the environmental heterogeneity and spatial extent. Our study emphasized that (1) environmental control is prevailing in stream metacommunities, (2) dispersal mode may have an important effect on metacommunity structuring, and (3) some factors other than spatial extent or environmental heterogeneity contributed to the differences among the basins. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Hokkanen P.,Center for Economic Development | Jantunen J.,Finnish Environment Institute
Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management | Year: 2012

This article reviews how the Finnish EIA legislation and procedures are performing in practice, and how the goals of the EIA Act are reached. The role of EIA in planning and decision-making, and the relationship between the EIA legislation and other pieces of legislation is also evaluated. Overall, the goals of the Finnish EIA legislation have been successfully reached: EIA has achieved a meaningful role as a preventive and participatory environmental management tool. In addition, stakeholders have understood the role of EIA and the scope of the current EIA legislation, which is under no pressure for major amendments. The EIA is applied to a rather small number of projects, but these are highly significant in terms of their environmental impact. Some areas requiring improvement identified, for example, the need to streamline and clarify the relationship between EIA procedure and zoning regulations as well as between EIA and the environmental permit system. The legislation for different sectors could be harmonised so that it would better take into account the broad information base created through EIA. © 2012 Imperial College Press.

Eloranta P.,Sinkilatie 13 | Eloranta A.,Center for Economic Development | Peramaki P.,Center for Economic Development
Fottea | Year: 2016

Freshwater red algae (Rhodophyta) were studied in Central Finland by examining 2224 rivers and brooks during the open water periods of the years 2012–2015 with supplementary sampling in S– and SW–Finland, the W–coast rivers and Lapland. A total of 1957 records of algae were made. Approximately 56.2% of the studied locations had 1–6 taxa. The total taxa collected were 25, with 5 taxa new to Finland. While sampling, ecological variables were recorded and measured. The most common taxa were Batrachospermum gelatinosum (37.0%), Sheathia arcuata (10.7%), Audouinella hermannii (11.2%) and Sirodotia suecica (7.0%). Lemanea spp. (9.9%) occurred in larger rivers. Most records were from July and August, but some also in winter months. From the most rare taxa, Lemanea condensata was found in Lapland rivers, Batrachospermum vogesiacum in acid, dystrophic rivers in Central Finland, B. atrum in 7 eutrophic rivers, Kumanoa globospora in 6 rivers of Central Finland, Batrachospermum elegans in 6 and K. virgatodecaisneana in 5 harder–water rivers of SW–Finland. © Czech Phycological Society (2016).

Verta O.-M.,Center for Economic Development | Triipponen J.-P.,Center for Economic Development
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2011

The Kokemäenjoki River Basin is the fourth largest in Finland. The city of Pori at the delta of the river is the most significant flood risk area in Finland. The preparation of a flood risk management plan (FRMP) for the Kokemäenjoki River Basin as a national pilot began in 2007 and will be finalised during 2011. The main challenges of the FRMP are the reconciliation of flood risks and various interests in different parts of the river basin, and adaptation to climate change. It has been predicted that climate change will alter the flood dynamics of the Kokemäenjoki River: the highest flow peaks will shift from spring to late autumn and winter and the risk of ice jam floods will increase. Development of the existing early warning systems and adaptive lake regulation practices are the two most important non-structural measures for preventing and mitigating flood damage. A new channel in the mid-river reach would help to manage the increasing winter flows. Also robust structural flood protection measures will be needed in the city of Pori. Nevertheless, close collaboration among authorities, municipalities and water body regulators will be critical in successful flood risk management in the Kokemäenjoki River Basin. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hynynen J.,Center for Economic Development
World Patent Information | Year: 2013

The substantial problems that exist in the dissemination of the message about the potential value of all aspects of intellectual property to entrepreneurs and SMEs are explored, in the specific context of the Central Finland region. A case study on existing levels of IP awareness showed the extent of the problems. The article then describes the ways in which this issue has been addressed, including the production of a free single page guide helping users to sharply focus on the link between key business activities and strategies and the value of IP in this context. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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