Jones D.A.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford |
Morris D.G.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford
Water Resources Research | Year: 2014
A new generalized method is presented enabling the use of multiple donor sites when predicting an index flood variable in an ungauged catchment using a hydrological regression model. The method is developed from the premise of having an index flood prediction with minimum variance, which results in a set of optimal weights assigned to each donor site. In the model framework presented here, the weights are determined by the geographical distance between the centroids of the catchments draining to the subject site and the donor sites. The new method was applied to a case study in the United Kingdom using annual maximum series of peak flow from 602 catchments. Results show that the prediction error of the index flood is reduced by using donor sites until a minimum of six donors have been included, after which no or marginal improvements in prediction accuracy are observed. A comparison of these results is made with a variant of the method where donor sites are selected based on connectivity with the subject site through the river network. The results show that only a marginal improvement is obtained by explicitly considering the network structure over spatial proximity. The evaluation is carried out based on a new performance measure that accounts for the sampling variability of the index flood estimates at each site. Other results compare the benefits obtained by adding relevant catchment descriptors to a simple regression model with those obtained by transferring information from local donor sites. © 2014. American Geophysical Union.
Diez-Ortiz M.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford |
Lahive E.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford |
Mosselmans J.F.W.,Diamond Light SourceHarwell Science and Innovation CampusDidcot |
Svendsen C.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford |
Spurgeon D.J.,Center for Ecology and HydrologyCrowmarsh GiffordWallingford
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015
Current bioavailability models, such as the free ion activity model and biotic ligand model, explicitly consider that metal exposure will be mainly to the dissolved metal in ionic form. With the rise of nanotechnology products and the increasing release of metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment, such models may increasingly be applied to support risk assessment. It is not immediately clear, however, whether the assumption of metal ion exposure will be relevant for NPs. Using an established approach of oral gluing, a toxicokinetics study was conducted to investigate the routes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Ag+ ion uptake in the soil-dwelling earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. The results indicated that a significant part of the Ag uptake in the earthworms is through oral/gut uptake for both Ag+ ions and NPs. Thus, sealing the mouth reduced Ag uptake by between 40% and 75%. An X-ray analysis of the internal distribution of Ag in transverse sections confirmed the presence of increased Ag concentrations in exposed earthworm tissues. For the AgNPs but not the Ag+ ions, high concentrations were associated with the gut wall, liver-like chloragogenous tissue, and nephridia, which suggest a pathway for AgNP uptake, detoxification, and excretion via these organs. Overall, the results indicate that Ag in the ionic and NP forms is assimilated and internally distributed in earthworms and that this uptake occurs predominantly via the gut epithelium and less so via the body wall. The importance of oral exposure questions the application of current metal bioavailability models, which implicitly consider that the dominant route of exposure is via the soil solution, for bioavailability assessment and modeling of metal-based NPs. © 2015 SETAC.