Center for Drug Safety Science

Liverpool, United Kingdom

Center for Drug Safety Science

Liverpool, United Kingdom
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Sison-Young R.L.C.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Mitsa D.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Jenkins R.E.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Mottram D.,Center for Drug Safety Science | And 11 more authors.
Toxicological Sciences | Year: 2015

In vitro preclinical models for the assessment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) are usually based on cryopreserved primary human hepatocytes (cPHH) or human hepatic tumor-derived cell lines; however, it is unclear how well such cell models reflect the normal function of liver cells. The physiological, pharmacological, and toxicological phenotyping of available cell-based systems is necessary in order to decide the testing purpose for which they are fit. We have therefore undertaken a global proteomic analysis of 3 human-derived hepatic cell lines (HepG2, Upcyte, and HepaRG) in comparison with cPHH with a focus on drug metabolizing enzymes and transport proteins (DMETs), as well as Nrf2-regulated proteins. In total, 4946 proteins were identified, of which 2722 proteins were common across all cell models, including 128 DMETs. Approximately 90% reduction in expression of cytochromes P450 was observed in HepG2 and Upcyte cells, and approximately 60% in HepaRG cells relative to cPHH. Drug transporter expression was also lower compared with cPHH with the exception of MRP3 and P-gp (MDR1) which appeared to be significantly expressed in HepaRG cells. In contrast, a high proportion of Nrf2-regulated proteins were more highly expressed in the cell lines compared with cPHH. The proteomic database derived here will provide a rational basis for the context-specific selection of the most appropriate 'hepatocyte-like' cell for the evaluation of particular cellular functions associated with DILI and, at the same time, assist in the construction of a testing paradigm which takes into account the in vivo disposition of a new drug. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved.

Chadwick J.,University of Liverpool | Jones M.,University of Liverpool | Mercer A.E.,Center for Drug Safety Science | Park B.K.,Center for Drug Safety Science | And 2 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010

A series of artemisinin-spermidine conjugates designed to utilise the upregulated polyamine transporter found in cancer cells have been prepared. These conjugates were evaluated against human promyelocytic leukaemia HL-60 cells and chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum and several show promising anticancer and antimalarial activity. Although some limitations in this vector-based approach are apparent, a number of high potency Boc-protected analogues were identified with activity against malaria parasites as low as 0.21 nM. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tonack S.,University of Liverpool | Patel S.,University of Liverpool | Jalali M.,University of Liverpool | Nedjadi T.,University of Liverpool | And 5 more authors.
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2011

To establish stable tetracycline-inducible pancreatic cancer cell lines.Suit-2, MiaPaca-2, and Panc-1 cells were transfected with a second generation reverse tetra-cycline-controlled transactivator protein (rtTA2S-M2), under the control of either a cytomegalovirus (CMV) or a chicken β-actin promoter, and the resulting clones were characterised. Use of the chicken (β-actin) promoter proved superior for both the production and maintenance of doxycycline-inducible cell lines. The system proved versatile, enabling transient inducible expression of a variety of genes, including GST-P, CYP2E1, S100A6, and the actin capping protein, CapG. To determine the physiological utility of this system in pancreatic cancer cells, stable inducible CapG expressors were established. Overexpressed CapG was localised to the cytoplasm and the nuclear membrane, but was not observed in the nucleus. High CapG levels were associated with enhanced motility, but not with changes to the cell cycle, or cellular proliferation. In CapG-overexpressing cells, the levels and phosphorylation status of other actin-moduating proteins (Cofilin and Ezrin/Radixin) were not altered. However, preliminary analyses suggest that the levels of other cellular proteins, such as ornithine aminotransferase and enolase, are altered upon CapG induction. We have generated pancreatic-cancer derived cell lines in which gene expression is fully controllable. © 2011 Baishideng. All rights reserved.

Tonack S.,University of Liverpool | Jenkinson C.,University of Liverpool | Cox T.,University of Liverpool | Elliott V.,University of Liverpool | And 8 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The aims of our study were to identify serum biomarkers that distinguish pancreatic cancer (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDAC) patients from benign pancreatic disease patients and healthy subjects, and to assess the effects of jaundice on biomarker performance. Methods: Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification were used to compare pooled serum and pancreatic juice samples from a test set of 59 and 25 subjects, respectively. Validation was undertaken in 113 independent subjects. Results: Candidate proteins Complement C5, inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H3, α1-β glycoprotein and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor were elevated in cancer, as were the reference markers CA19-9 and Reg3A. Biliary obstruction had a significant effect on the performance of the markers, in particular within the PDAC group where the presence of jaundice was associated with a significant increase in the levels of all six proteins (P<0.01). Consequently, in the absence of jaundice, proteins showed reduced sensitivity for PDAC patients over benign subjects and healthy controls (HCs). Similarly, in the presence of jaundice, markers showed reduced specificity for PDAC patients over benign subjects with jaundice. Combining markers enabled improved sensitivity for non-jaundiced PDAC patients over HCs and improved specificity for jaundiced PDAC patients over jaundiced benign disease subjects.Conclusions:The presence-absence of jaundice in the clinical scenario severely impacts the performance of biomarkers for PDAC diagnosis and has implications for their clinical translation. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of Liverpool and Center for Drug Safety Science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2016

A number of serious adverse drug reactions are caused by T cells. An association with HLA alleles has been identified with certain reactions, which makes it difficult to develop standardized preclinical tests to predict chemical liability. We have recently developed a T cell priming assay using the drug metabolite nitroso sulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO). We now report on reproducibility of the assay, establishment of a biobank of PBMC from 1000 HLA-typed volunteers, and generation of antigen-specific responses to a panel of compounds. Forty T cell priming assays were performed with SMX-NO; 5 gave weak responses (1.5-1.9) and 34 showed good (SI 2.0-3.9) or strong responses (SI > 4.0) using readouts for proliferation and cytokine release. Thus, SMX-NO can be used as a model reagent for in vitro T cell activation. Good to strong responses were also generated to haptenic compounds (amoxicillin, piperacillin and Bandrowskis base) that are not associated with an HLA risk allele. Furthermore, responses were detected to carbamazepine (in HLA-B*15:02 donors), flucloxacillin (in 1 HLA-B*57:01 donor) and oxypurinol (in HLA-B*58:01 donors), which are associated with HLA-class I-restricted forms of hypersensitivity. In contrast, nave T cell priming to ximelagatran, lumiracoxib, and lapatinib (HLA-class II-restricted forms of hypersensitivity) yielded negative results. Abacavir, which activates memory T cells in patients, did not activate nave T cells from HLA-B*57:01 donors. This work shows that the priming assay can be used to assess primary T cell responses to drugs and to study mechanisms T cell priming for drugs that display HLA class I restriction. Additional studies are required to investigate HLA-class II-restricted reactions.

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