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Chavshin A.R.,Urmia University of Medical Sciences | Chavshin A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Oshaghi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Vatandoost H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Symbiosis | Year: 2013

Issues, like emerging insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes, have led to a breakdown in many vector control programs. In this study, a recombinant Escherichia coli with plasmid expressing a green fluorescent protein (E.coli-GFP) was used as a paratransgenesis model to determine: the possibility of E. coli-GFP trans-stadial transmission. The effect of the water microflora, of bacteria-impregnated sugar solutions, and of blood-feeding on E. coli-GFP colonization and localization within An. stephensi tissues, were studied. The results demonstrated the persistence of E. coli-GFP during molting and metamorphosis events and its trans-stadial transmission. Also the efficacy of bacteria-impregnated sugar solutions for transferring the bacteria to the adult mosquito's midgut was shown. A blood meal dramatically increased the number of bacteria within 24-48 h post feeding. In addition to fluorescence microscope evaluation, GFP gene PCR amplification showed the presence of the bacteria in the midgut of larvae, pupae, and adults up to 13 days after eclosion. Massive colonization of bacteria was observed in the larvae and in the adult mosquito's malpighian tubules which may play a role in retaining bacteria in adult mosquitos. The results of this study showed that E. coli could be used as a laboratory model in paratransgenesis studies for the evaluation of various effector molecules as anti-parasite agents for malaria and filariasis. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Alikhani M.Y.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences | Asl H.M.,Center for Diseases Control | Khairkhah M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Farajnia S.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences | Aslani M.M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench | Year: 2011

Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize phenotypically and genotypically the serotypes of the E. coli O111 associated with diarrheal disease and assess the variation among serotypes in terms of specific virulence factors and HeLa cells adherence patterns. Background: Escherichia coli O111 serogroups are prevalent in endemic or sporadic cases of diarrhea, especially in developing areas. Patients and methods: A total of 54 strains of E. coli O111 isolated from diarrheal and healthy cases were included in this study. Flagella antigens of motile and non-motile strains were identified by fliC-RFLP method (H types) and confirmed with agglutination test using H-specific antisera. All strains were tested for the presence of 5 different gene regions associated with virulence (eaeA, eaeB, bfpA, sxt and EAF plasmid) by PCR and the patterns of bacterial attachment to HeLa cells was assayed in cell culture. Results: Of 54 E. coli O111 strains, 89% were typeable with standard H antisera and the remaining 11% of strains were non-motile (H -). Twenty-three different H type were distinguished among the O111 strains by PCR-RFLP. The most common serotypes included H21, H9, H2, H6 and H12 (48%). Serotypes O111:H9 were represented by strains with 2 patterns of virulence genes (eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE+, and eaeA+/bfpA-/EAE-) and serotype H14 was represented by strains with the single eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE- combination. Four distinct patterns of adherence were distinguished: LA, LLA, AA and DA. All of serotypes with the eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE+, or eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE-, combination isolated from children with diarrhea exhibited the LA pattern, and serotypes with eaeA+/bfpA-/EAF- showed the LLA, while the majority of the strains isolated from healthy cases exhibited the DA, AA and NA patterns. Conclusion: Strains of this O serogroup represented a diverse of serotypes with a variety of virulence factors and mechanisms of pathogenesis. © 2011 RIGLD, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases.

Ntambwe M.,University of Limpopo | Maryet M.,Center for Diseases Control
African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: Tuberculosis and adverse effects have been shown to affect both the quality of life and the survival of patients on antiretroviral treatment. This study sought to investigate the causes of death in a sample of adult HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment at Thembisa Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by examining the charts of 498 adult patients treated from January 2004 to December 2006 at the antiretroviral clinic of a regional hospital in Johannesburg. A data collection form was used to collate both sociodemographic and clinical data. Results: The majority of the patients were female (71.7%) with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.6 years, and in the age group of 18-77 years. The greater number of the patients was South African citizens, with only 2.2% citizens of other Southern African countries. At baseline, 29.9% had been on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Most of the patients had been prescribed the regimen comprising stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine or efavirenz; two of them (0.4%) were on the second line regimen made of zidovudine, didanosine, and lopinavir-ritonavir. At least one side effect was documented in 82.1% of patients; the ten most documented side effects were skin rashes (62.9%), peripheral neuropathy (48.4%), headaches (38.2%), chest pain (21.9%), coughing (21.7%), anaemia (21.5%), diarrhoea (19.3%), vomiting (16.7%), dizziness (15.3%), and lactic acidosis (11.2%). A mortality rate of 3.6% was recorded during the 2-year study period. Although the cause of death was undetermined in 11.1% of patients, 50.0% and 38.9% of deaths respectively were a consequence of tuberculosis and lactic acidosis. Conclusions: In addition to tuberculosis, side effects in particular, lactic acidosis was the other main cause of death in patients treated at the study site. These findings suggest that patients on regimens containing drugs that cause lactic acidosis should be closely monitored when the first complaints suggesting lactic acidosis are reported or noticed. © 2012. The Authors.

Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control | Alami A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. METHODS:: We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. RESULTS:: The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n=18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n=16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. CONCLUSION:: According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Bakhshi E.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences | Koohpayehzadeh J.,Center for Diseases Control | Seifi B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Rafei A.,Center for Diseases Control | And 4 more authors.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2015

Background: To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged ≥ 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level. Results: Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions: The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults. © 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.

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