Liu W.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology |
Wei M.-T.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology |
Wei M.-T.,Center for Diseases Control |
Tong Y.,Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology |
And 7 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011
A literature review and pooled data analysis were carried out to examine the prevalence of antibodies against five influenza virus subtypes in pigs in China over a 10-year period (1999-2009). The average seropositive frequencies of subtypes H1, H3, H5, H7 and H9 were 3478/11,168 (31.1%), 2900/10,139 (28.6%), 77/5945 (1.3%), 0/1440 (0%) and 86/3619 (2.4%), respectively. There was a geographical variation in the seroprevalence of subtype H1, with the highest seroprevalence in pigs in South and East China. BLAST analysis of genetic sequences revealed that genome segments with moderate homology to the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus were present among swine influenza viruses isolated in China, especially in South and East China. It was concluded from both serological and genetic studies that subtypes H1, H3, H5 and H9 are currently co-circulating in pigs in China, with the H1 subtype most commonly detected, followed by H3. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Shirzadi M.R.,Center for Diseases Control |
Shirzadi M.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Kermanizadeh A.,Kerman Medical University |
Yaghoobi-Ershadi M.-R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Sharifi I.,Kerman Medical University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2013
Introduction: Installation of deltamethrin-impregnated screens and curtains was assessed as a preventive measure against transmission of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) by Phlebotomus sergenti in Bam, a well-known focus of ACL in Iran with a population of nearly 100 000. Methods: This was a quasi-experiement based on official data from an ACL control program in which one section of the city with about one-quarter of the population received the intervention. In the analysis, the rest of the city was used as control. Data covered June 2007 through October 2010. Results: Comparison of cumulative incidence between the intervention and control areas before and after installation indicate a significant differential reduction in the cumulative ACL incidence in the intervention area and a reversal of the relative risk, beginning four months after the completion of installation, from RR = 1.14 (95% CI:1.05-1.23) to RR = 0.84 (95% CI:0.72-0.98). Results also indicate a return to a higher cumulative relative risk, RR = 1.51 (95% CI:1.30-1.77), several months after the loss of the preventive effect. Conclusions: Findings indicate the short-term effectiveness of such preventive measures but highlight the necessity of long-term, sustainable strategies. Results also suggest that shrinkage in the human reservoir pool in response to the intervention may play a significant role in prolongation of the preventive effect beyond the insecticidal life of impregnated materials in foci of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis and possibly anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis due to L. donovani. © Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2013. All rights reserved.
Chavshin A.R.,Urmia University of Medical Sciences |
Chavshin A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Oshaghi M.A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Vatandoost H.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
And 3 more authors.
Symbiosis | Year: 2013
Issues, like emerging insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes, have led to a breakdown in many vector control programs. In this study, a recombinant Escherichia coli with plasmid expressing a green fluorescent protein (E.coli-GFP) was used as a paratransgenesis model to determine: the possibility of E. coli-GFP trans-stadial transmission. The effect of the water microflora, of bacteria-impregnated sugar solutions, and of blood-feeding on E. coli-GFP colonization and localization within An. stephensi tissues, were studied. The results demonstrated the persistence of E. coli-GFP during molting and metamorphosis events and its trans-stadial transmission. Also the efficacy of bacteria-impregnated sugar solutions for transferring the bacteria to the adult mosquito's midgut was shown. A blood meal dramatically increased the number of bacteria within 24-48 h post feeding. In addition to fluorescence microscope evaluation, GFP gene PCR amplification showed the presence of the bacteria in the midgut of larvae, pupae, and adults up to 13 days after eclosion. Massive colonization of bacteria was observed in the larvae and in the adult mosquito's malpighian tubules which may play a role in retaining bacteria in adult mosquitos. The results of this study showed that E. coli could be used as a laboratory model in paratransgenesis studies for the evaluation of various effector molecules as anti-parasite agents for malaria and filariasis. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Ntambwe M.,University of Limpopo |
Maryet M.,Center for Diseases Control
African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine | Year: 2012
Background: Tuberculosis and adverse effects have been shown to affect both the quality of life and the survival of patients on antiretroviral treatment. This study sought to investigate the causes of death in a sample of adult HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment at Thembisa Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted by examining the charts of 498 adult patients treated from January 2004 to December 2006 at the antiretroviral clinic of a regional hospital in Johannesburg. A data collection form was used to collate both sociodemographic and clinical data. Results: The majority of the patients were female (71.7%) with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.6 years, and in the age group of 18-77 years. The greater number of the patients was South African citizens, with only 2.2% citizens of other Southern African countries. At baseline, 29.9% had been on anti-tuberculosis treatment. Most of the patients had been prescribed the regimen comprising stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine or efavirenz; two of them (0.4%) were on the second line regimen made of zidovudine, didanosine, and lopinavir-ritonavir. At least one side effect was documented in 82.1% of patients; the ten most documented side effects were skin rashes (62.9%), peripheral neuropathy (48.4%), headaches (38.2%), chest pain (21.9%), coughing (21.7%), anaemia (21.5%), diarrhoea (19.3%), vomiting (16.7%), dizziness (15.3%), and lactic acidosis (11.2%). A mortality rate of 3.6% was recorded during the 2-year study period. Although the cause of death was undetermined in 11.1% of patients, 50.0% and 38.9% of deaths respectively were a consequence of tuberculosis and lactic acidosis. Conclusions: In addition to tuberculosis, side effects in particular, lactic acidosis was the other main cause of death in patients treated at the study site. These findings suggest that patients on regimens containing drugs that cause lactic acidosis should be closely monitored when the first complaints suggesting lactic acidosis are reported or noticed. © 2012. The Authors.
Menon R.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Menon R.,Center for Diseases Control |
Bhat G.,University of Texas Medical Branch |
Bhat G.,Center for Diseases Control |
And 3 more authors.
Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014
Objective To develop classification models of demographic/clinical factors and biomarker data from spontaneous preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians. Design Secondary analysis of biomarker data using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), a supervised machine learning algorithm method. Setting Analysis of data on 36 biomarkers from 191 women was reduced by MARS to develop predictive models for preterm birth in African Americans and Caucasians. Samples Maternal plasma, cord plasma collected at admission for preterm or term labor and amniotic fluid at delivery. Methods Data were partitioned into training and testing sets. Variable importance, a relative indicator (0-100%) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) characterized results. Results Multivariate adaptive regression splines generated models for combined and racially stratified biomarker data. Clinical and demographic data did not contribute to the model. Racial stratification of data produced distinct models in all three compartments. In African Americans maternal plasma samples IL-1RA, TNF-α, angiopoietin 2, TNFRI, IL-5, MIP1α, IL-1β and TGF-α modeled preterm birth (AUC train: 0.98, AUC test: 0.86). In Caucasians TNFR1, ICAM-1 and IL-1RA contributed to the model (AUC train: 0.84, AUC test: 0.68). African Americans cord plasma samples produced IL-12P70, IL-8 (AUC train: 0.82, AUC test: 0.66). Cord plasma in Caucasians modeled IGFII, PDGFBB, TGF-β1, IL-12P70, and TIMP1 (AUC train: 0.99, AUC test: 0.82). Amniotic fluid in African Americans modeled FasL, TNFRII, RANTES, KGF, IGFI (AUC train: 0.95, AUC test: 0.89) and in Caucasians, TNF-α, MCP3, TGF-β3, TNFR1 and angiopoietin 2 (AUC train: 0.94 AUC test: 0.79). Conclusions Multivariate adaptive regression splines models multiple biomarkers associated with preterm birth and demonstrated racial disparity. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Alikhani M.Y.,Hamadan University of Medical Sciences |
Asl H.M.,Center for Diseases Control |
Khairkhah M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran |
Farajnia S.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences |
Aslani M.M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench | Year: 2011
Aim: The purpose of this study was to characterize phenotypically and genotypically the serotypes of the E. coli O111 associated with diarrheal disease and assess the variation among serotypes in terms of specific virulence factors and HeLa cells adherence patterns. Background: Escherichia coli O111 serogroups are prevalent in endemic or sporadic cases of diarrhea, especially in developing areas. Patients and methods: A total of 54 strains of E. coli O111 isolated from diarrheal and healthy cases were included in this study. Flagella antigens of motile and non-motile strains were identified by fliC-RFLP method (H types) and confirmed with agglutination test using H-specific antisera. All strains were tested for the presence of 5 different gene regions associated with virulence (eaeA, eaeB, bfpA, sxt and EAF plasmid) by PCR and the patterns of bacterial attachment to HeLa cells was assayed in cell culture. Results: Of 54 E. coli O111 strains, 89% were typeable with standard H antisera and the remaining 11% of strains were non-motile (H -). Twenty-three different H type were distinguished among the O111 strains by PCR-RFLP. The most common serotypes included H21, H9, H2, H6 and H12 (48%). Serotypes O111:H9 were represented by strains with 2 patterns of virulence genes (eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE+, and eaeA+/bfpA-/EAE-) and serotype H14 was represented by strains with the single eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE- combination. Four distinct patterns of adherence were distinguished: LA, LLA, AA and DA. All of serotypes with the eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE+, or eaeA+/bfpA+/EAE-, combination isolated from children with diarrhea exhibited the LA pattern, and serotypes with eaeA+/bfpA-/EAF- showed the LLA, while the majority of the strains isolated from healthy cases exhibited the DA, AA and NA patterns. Conclusion: Strains of this O serogroup represented a diverse of serotypes with a variety of virulence factors and mechanisms of pathogenesis. © 2011 RIGLD, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases.
Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences |
Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences |
Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control |
Alami A.,Gonabad University of Medical Sciences |
Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVE:: Hypertension covers a large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries. The unequal distribution of hypertension in the population may affect 'health for all' goal. This study aimed to investigate the socioeconomic inequality of hypertension in Iran and to identify its influencing factors. METHODS:: We used data from Iran's surveillance system for risk factors of noncommunicable diseases which was conducted on 89400 individuals aged 15-64 years in 2005. To determine the socioeconomic status of participants, a new variable was created using a principal component analysis. We examined hypertension at different levels of this new variable and calculated slop index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (C) for hypertension. We then applied Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis to determine the causes of inequality. RESULTS:: The SII and C for hypertension were -32.3 and -0.170, respectively. The concentration indices varied widely between different provinces in Iran and was lower (more unequal) in women than in men. There was significant socioeconomic inequality in hypertension. The results of decomposition indicated that 40.5% of the low-socioeconomic group (n=18190) and 16.4% of the high-socioeconomic group (n=16335) had hypertension. Age, education level, sex and residency location were the main associated factors of the difference among groups. CONCLUSION:: According to our results, there was an inequality in hypertension in Iran, so that individuals with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of hypertension. Age was the most contributed factor in this inequality and women in low-socioeconomic group were the most vulnerable people for hypertension. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Bakhshi E.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences |
Koohpayehzadeh J.,Center for Diseases Control |
Seifi B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Rafei A.,Center for Diseases Control |
And 4 more authors.
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal | Year: 2015
Background: To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged ≥ 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level. Results: Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables. Conclusions: The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults. © 2015, Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal.
Asgari F.,Center for Diseases Control |
Biglarian A.,University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences |
Seifi B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Bakhshi A.,University of Strathclyde |
And 2 more authors.
Annals of Epidemiology | Year: 2013
Purpose: The last study that had a representative sample of the Iranian population and examined the association between sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with obesity used data from the 1999 to 2000 National Health Survey in Iran. Concern about the increased prevalence of obesity has heightened interest in the association between varieties of these factors with obesity among Iranian households. Methods: Data (20,917 adults) were taken from the 2009 STEPwise approach to Surveillance survey in Iran that was conducted under the supervision of World Health Organization. Using quadratic inference function, we evaluated the relation of age, sex, physical activity, serving of fruit and vegetable, employment status, smoking, and place of residence with obesity. Results: Using 20-30 years as the reference group, the obesity odds ratios (ORs) were 2.48, 3.79, 3.52, and 3.15 for ages 30-40, 40-50, 50-60, and 60+ years, respectively. Obesity OR for female was 2.63, compared with male. Obesity ORs for smokers and ex-smokers were 0.64 and 1.18, respectively, compared with nonsmokers. Among Iranian adult, obesity ORs for the moderate and vigorous physical activity were 0.99 and 0.90, respectively, compared with low level. The estimated odds of obesity were 46% higher for rural adults. Obesity ORs for public and private employed were 0.79 and 0.76, respectively, compared with unemployed. Conclusions: Our results may provide better insights of the factors associated with obesity and can be used as a basis to reinforce health programs to prevent obesity in Iran. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | Center for Diseases Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Iranian Red Crescent medical journal | Year: 2015
To date, no study has addressed the association between race/ethnicity and obesity considering other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in Iran.The current study aimed to study lifestyle and the environmental factors affecting obesity in the Iranian subjects of the STEPS Survey, 2011.The study was conducted on 8639 subjects (aged 20 years) in the STEPS Survey 2011 in Iran under supervision of the World Health Organization (WHO). Height and body weight were measured following the standardized procedures. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) method was used to examine factors associated with obesity. The examined variables were age, gender, race/ethnicity, place of residence, employment status, physical activity, smoking status, and educational level.Overall, 22.3% of the subjects were obese. In a GEE model, a healthy weight status among adults was associated with being younger, male, in a rural residence, employees, spending more time engaged in physical activity, being a smoker and having a moderate or high level of education. These associations were statistically significant after adjusting for other variables.The study results suggest a need for targeted interventions and continued surveillance for the Iranian adults.