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Washington, DC, United States

Dikshit R.,Tata Memorial Hospital | Gupta P.C.,Healis Seskaria Institute of Public Health | Ramasundarahettige C.,University of Toronto | Gajalakshmi V.,Epidemiological Research Center | And 12 more authors.
The Lancet

Background: The age-specific mortality rates and total deaths from specific cancers have not been documented for the various regions and subpopulations of India. We therefore assessed the cause of death in 2001-03 in homes in small areas that were chosen to be representative of all the parts of India. Methods: At least 130 trained physicians independently assigned causes to 122 429 deaths, which occurred in 1·1 million homes in 6671 small areas that were randomly selected to be representative of all of India, based on a structured nonmedical surveyor's field report. Findings: 7137 of 122 429 study deaths were due to cancer, corresponding to 556 400 national cancer deaths in India in 2010. 395 400 (71%) cancer deaths occurred in people aged 30-69 years (200 100 men and 195 300 women). At 30-69 years, the three most common fatal cancers were oral (including lip and pharynx, 45 800 [22·9%]), stomach (25 200 [12·6%]), and lung (including trachea and larynx, 22 900 [11·4%]) in men, and cervical (33 400 [17·1%]), stomach (27 500 [14·1%]), and breast (19 900 [10·2%]) in women. Tobacco-related cancers represented 42·0% (84 000) of male and 18·3% (35 700) of female cancer deaths and there were twice as many deaths from oral cancers as lung cancers. Age-standardised cancer mortality rates per 100 000 were similar in rural (men 95·6 [99% CI 89·6-101·7] and women 96·6 [90·7-102·6]) and urban areas (men 102·4 [92·7-112·1] and women 91·2 [81·9-100·5]), but varied greatly between the states, and were two times higher in the least educated than in the most educated adults (men, illiterate 106·6 [97·4-115·7] vs most educated 45·7 [37·8- 53·6]; women, illiterate 106·7 [99·9-113·6] vs most educated 43·4 [30·7-56·1]). Cervical cancer was far less common in Muslim than in Hindu women (study deaths 24, age-standardised mortality ratio 0·68 [0·64-0·71] vs 340, 1·06 [1·05-1·08]). Interpretation: Prevention of tobacco-related and cervical cancers and earlier detection of treatable cancers would reduce cancer deaths in India, particularly in the rural areas that are underserved by cancer services. The substantial variation in cancer rates in India suggests other risk factors or causative agents that remain to be discovered. Source

Anderson S.T.,Michigan State University | Laxminarayan R.,Center for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy | Laxminarayan R.,Princeton University | Salant S.W.,University of Michigan
Journal of Health Economics

We consider a health authority seeking to allocate annual budgets optimally over time to minimize the discounted social cost of infection(s) evolving in a finite set of groups. This optimization problem is challenging since the standard SIS epidemiological model describing the spread of the disease contains a nonconvexity. Neither optimal control nor standard discrete-time dynamic programming can be used to identify the optimal policy. We modify the standard dynamic programming algorithm and show how familiar, elementary arguments can be used to reach conclusions about the optimal policy. We show that under certain conditions it is optimal to focus the entire annual budget on one group at a time rather than divide it among several groups, as is often done in practice. We also show that under certain conditions it remains optimal to focus on one group when faced with a wealth constraint instead of an annual budget. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Wertheim H.,University of Oxford | Van Nguyen K.,National Hospital for Tropical Diseases | Hara G.L.,Infectious Diseases Unit | Gelband H.,Center for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance

Polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin) are older bactericidal antibiotics that are increasingly used to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. However, dosing and clinical use of these drugs vary widely. This survey was undertaken to reveal how polymyxins are used worldwide. Data were collected through a structured online questionnaire consisting of 24 questions regarding colistin usage patterns and indications as well as colistin dosage for adult patients. The questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 to relevant experts worldwide and was completed by 284 respondents from 56 different countries. Respondents from 11/56 countries (20%) had no access to colistin; 58/284 respondents (20.4%) reported that in 2010 they experienced that colistin was not available when needed. Formulations of polymyxins used were reported as: colistimethate sodium (48.6%); colistin sulfate (14.1%); both (1.4%); polymyxin B (1.4%); and unknown. Intravenous formulations were used by 84.2%, aerosolised or nebulised colistin by 44.4% and oral colistin for selective gut decontamination by 12.7%. Common indications for intravenous colistin were ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis and catheter-related infections with MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Only 21.2% of respondents used a colistin-loading dose, mainly in Europe and North America. This survey reveals that the majority of respondents use colistin and a few use polymyxin B. The survey results show that colistin is commonly underdosed. Clear guidance is needed on indications, dosing and antibiotic combinations to improve clinical outcomes and delay the emergence of resistance. Colistin should be considered a last-resort drug and its use should be controlled. International guidelines are urgently needed. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Source

Roca I.,University of Barcelona | Akova M.,Hacettepe University | Carlet J.,Fondation HOpital St | Cavaleri M.,European Medicines Agency EMA | And 20 more authors.
New Microbes and New Infections

In the last decade we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the proportion and absolute number of bacterial pathogens resistant to multiple antibacterial agents. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently considered as an emergent global disease and a major public health problem. The B-Debate meeting brought together renowned experts representing the main stakeholders (i.e. policy makers, public health authorities, regulatory agencies, pharmaceutical companies and the scientific community at large) to review the globalthreat of antibiotic resistance and come up with a coordinated set of strategies to fight antimicrobial resistance in a multifaceted approach. We summarize the views of the B-Debate participants regarding the current situation of antimicrobial resistance in animals and the food chain, within the community and the healthcare setting as well as the role of the environment and the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, providing expert recommendations to tackle the global threat of antimicrobial resistance. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Klein E.Y.,Princeton University | Klein E.Y.,Center for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy | Smith D.L.,Center for Disease Dynamics Economics and Policy | Smith D.L.,Malaria Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

A major issue in the control of malaria is the evolution of drug resistance. Ecological theory has demonstrated that pathogen superinfection and the resulting within-host competition influences the evolution of specific traits. Individuals infected with Plasmodium falciparum are consistently infected by multiple parasites; however, while this probably alters the dynamics of resistance evolution, there are few robust mathematical models examining this issue. We developed a general theory for modelling the evolution of resistance with host superinfection and examine: (i) the effect of transmission intensity on the rate of resistance evolution; (ii)the importance of different biological costs of resistance; and (iii) the best measure of the frequency of resistance.We find that within-host competition retards the ability and slows the rate at which drug-resistant parasites invade, particularly as the transmission rate increases. We also find that biological costs of resistance that reduce transmission are less important than reductions in the duration of drugresistant infections. Lastly, we find that random sampling of the population for resistant parasites is likely to significantly underestimate the frequency of resistance. Considering superinfection in mathematical models of antimalarial drug resistance may thus be important for generating accurate predictions of interventions to contain resistance. © 2012 The Royal Society. Source

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