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Tang B.,Chongqing Medical University | Li Q.,Chongqing Medical University | Zhao X.-H.,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu Military Command | Wang H.-G.,Chongqing Medical University | And 13 more authors.
Autophagy | Year: 2015

Shiga toxins (Stxs) are a family of cytotoxic proteins that lead to the development of bloody diarrhea, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, and central nervous system complications caused by bacteria such as S. dysenteriae, E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O104:H4. Increasing evidence indicates that macroautophagy (autophagy) is a key factor in the cell death induced by Stxs. However, the associated mechanisms are not yet clear. This study showed that Stx2 induces autophagic cell death in Caco-2 cells, a cultured line model of human enterocytes. Inhibition of autophagy using pharmacological inhibitors, such as 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, or silencing of the autophagy genes ATG12 or BECN1 decreased the Stx2-induced death in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, there were numerous instances of dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the Stx2-treated Caco-2 cells, and repression of ER stress due to the depletion of viable candidates of DDIT3 and NUPR1. These processes led to Stx2-induced autophagy and cell death. Finally, the data showed that the pseudokinase TRIB3-mediated DDIT3 expression and AKT1 dephosphorylation upon ER stress were triggered by Stx2. Thus, the data indicate that Stx2 causes autophagic cell death via the ER stress pathway in intestinal epithelial cells. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Xia S.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Xia S.,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu Military Command | Zhao Z.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | Xie F.,Chinese PLA General Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Tumor Biology | Year: 2016

Squamous cell skin carcinoma remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality with a huge cost of treatment, necessitating discovery and validation of potent therapeutic targets. Poly r(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) has been previously shown to function as a tumor suppressor. Previous work has shown that PCBP1 expression is inversely correlated to maintenance of cancer stem cells in squamous cell skin carcinoma and prostate cancer, respectively. However, the precise mechanism that regulates PCBP1 expression has not been elucidated. Here, we show that loss of PCBP1 protein expression observed in CD34+ COLO-16 cells is orchestrated by translational silencing. Translational silencing is caused by targeting of PCBP1 mRNA by miR-490-3p. Exogenous manipulation of miR-490-3p levels can accordingly modulate PCBP1 protein expression, thus suggesting that miR-490-3p as a potential biomarker in squamous cell skin cancer with therapeutic benefits. © 2016 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM)

Yu J.,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu Military Command | Liu X.-Y.,Southwest forestry University | Yang B.,Southwest forestry University | Wang J.,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu Military Command | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2013

Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) -susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)- cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. Copyright © 2013 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.

Yu J.,Chinese Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Yu J.,Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chengdu Military Command | Li C.-X.,Chinese Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | Dong Y.-D.,Chinese Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2015

Most mosquito species display host preferences that are a crucial determinant of the transmission rate of mosquito-borne pathogens. Although a transgenic approach, based on driving genes for zoophily into vector populations, has been advocated as a malaria control strategy by the World Health Organization since 1982, the genes involved in mosquito host choice remain poorly understood. Culex pipiens pallens Coquillet mosquitoes were artificially selected for two different host preferences in a specially designed experimental enclosure. Of 3,035 mosquitoes obtained from larvae and pupae collected from the wild (the F0 generation), 27% preferentially fed on pigeons and 16% fed on mice. Following artificial selection for these host preferences over successive generations, the percentage of mosquitoes that preferred to feed on pigeons or mice gradually increased, eventually stabilizing at ∼55 and 34%, respectively, after the sixth generation. Intergenerational differences in host preferences were significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences in host preferences between mosquitoes selected to prefer pigeons and those selected to prefer mice were both significant and consistent over almost six generations. © The Authors 2015.

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