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Goyang, South Korea

Hong S.-Y.,National Cancer Control Institute | Lim M.K.,National Cancer Control Institute | Lim M.K.,National School of Management | Yun E.H.,National Cancer Control Institute | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Research and Treatment

Purpose The objective of this study was to measure secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in personal computer (PC) rooms with the purpose of determining the strength of scientific evidence supporting the legislative ban on smoking in PC rooms located in the Republic of Korea. Materials and Methods From June to September 2012, particulate matter (PM2.5) and air nicotine concentration (ANC) were measured in the smoking and non-smoking areas of PC rooms in Goyang City, Korea. In 28 randomly sampled PC rooms, field investigators completed an observational questionnaire on building characteristics, smoking policies, and evidence of smoking. The geometric means (GM) of PM2.5 and ANC in smoking and non-smoking areas were compared. Results Evidence of smoking was identified in both the smoking and non-smoking areas of all PC rooms. The GMs of PM2.5 and ANC in both areas were high and did not differ significantly (174.77 μg/m3 and 48.95 μg/m3 in smoking areas; 93.38 μg/m3 and 41.30 μg/m3 in nonsmoking areas). Overall PM2.5 concentrations were 5.5-fold higher than those listed in the World Health Organization guidelines. Conclusion This study supported previous reports that a partial smoking ban did not protect individuals from SHS exposure. Furthermore, the results from our study suggest how research can support policy. Countries in which smoke-free policies are not yet comprehensive may find our results useful. © 2016 by the Korean Cancer Association. Source

Park S.-J.,MG MED Inc. | Jung E.H.,MG MED Inc. | Ryu R.-S.,MG MED Inc. | Kang H.W.,Macrogen Inc. | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Cytogenetics

Background: Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is currently the most powerful method for detecting chromosomal alterations in pre and postnatal clinical cases. In this study, we developed a BAC based array CGH analysis platform for detecting whole genome DNA copy number changes including specific micro deletion and duplication chromosomal disorders. Additionally, we report our experience with the clinical implementation of our array CGH analysis platform. Array CGH was performed on 5080 pre and postnatal clinical samples from patients referred with a variety of clinical phenotypes. Results: A total of 4073 prenatal cases (4033 amniotic fluid and 40 chorionic villi specimens) and 1007 postnatal cases (407 peripheral blood and 600 cord blood) were studied with complete concordance between array CGH, karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization results. Among 75 positive prenatal cases with DNA copy number variations, 60 had an aneuploidy, seven had a deletion, and eight had a duplication. Among 39 positive postnatal cases samples, five had an aneuploidy, 23 had a deletion, and 11 had a duplication. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the utility of using our newly developed whole-genome array CGH as first-tier test in 5080 pre and postnatal cases. Array CGH has increased the ability to detect segmental deletion and duplication in patients with variable clinical features and is becoming a more powerful tool in pre and postnatal diagnostics. © 2011 Park et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jang M.H.,Pusan National University | Kim S.Y.,Pusan National University | Kim C.-K.,Korean Institute of Tuberculosis | Hwang S.-H.,Center for Diagnostic Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine

Background: Early laboratory detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is crucial for controlling tuberculosis. We developed a hydrogel mycobacterial culture method that retains the advantages of both solid and liquid methods in terms of speed, cost, and efficiency. Methods: Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) suspensions and 200 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive clinical specimens were inoculated in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid media (Becton-Dickinson and Company, USA) and mixed with 75 μL of 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-Phe-Phe-OH hydrogel stock solution in an Eppendorf tube just before culture incubation. The mixtures were cultured at 37°C for as long as 14 days to monitor culture status. Results: The number of M. bovis BCG increased with time. For 200 AFB smear-positive specimens, 155 of 158 conventional culture-positive specimens and 4 culture-negative or contaminated specimens yielded positive cultures within 14 days. For 128 specimens positive with the liquid culture method, the time to positive culture using the hydrogel method (mean, 12.6 days; range, 7 to 14 days) was significantly shorter than that for conventional liquid culture (mean, 16.2 days; range, 6 to 31 days; P≥0.0001). Conclusions: The hydrogel scaffold culture system is useful for timely, economical, and efficient detection of mycobacteria in clinical specimens. © The Korean Society for Laboratory Medicine. Source

Joung J.Y.,Center for Prostate Cancer | Park S.,Yonsei University | Yoon H.,National Cancer Center | Kwon W.-A.,Wonkwang University | And 6 more authors.

Objective To confirm the hypothesis that nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22) is overestimated in concentrated urine, we compared the NMP22 values measured at different dietary states. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 531 healthy subjects who had had abnormal urinary NMP22 values ≥10 U/mL at the first test and underwent a second NMP22 test within 2 weeks. The first NMP22 test was performed after overnight fasting, and the second was performed with no dietary restrictions. We compared the NMP22 values between the 2 measurements and investigated the relationship between the NMP22 value and urine specific gravity. Results At the second test, 504 subjects (94.9%) had a normal NMP22 value of <10 U/mL and only 27 subjects (5.1%) persistently had an abnormal NMP22 value of ≥10 U/mL. Both NMP22 and urine specific gravity at the first test were significantly higher than at the second test (P <.0001). Subjects with an abnormal NMP22 value tended to have a more concentrated urine with a greater urine specific gravity than did the subjects with a normal NMP22 value. This difference was significant in the subgroup undergoing bowel preparation for colonoscopy (P <.001). Conclusion NMP22 will be overestimated in concentrated urine after overnight fasting. When interpreting the NMP22 value, we should consider the overestimation of NMP22 in concentrated urine. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Park E.Y.,National Cancer Control Institute | Yun E.H.,National Cancer Control Institute | Lim M.K.,National Cancer Control Institute | Lee D.-H.,Center for Diagnostic Oncology | And 3 more authors.
Cancer Research and Treatment

Purpose In some countries with high smoking prevalence, smoke-free legislation has only been implemented in specific public places, as opposed to a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places. The purpose of this study was to provide valid data on second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure that reflect the consequences of incomplete smoke-free legislation, and provide a rationale for expanding this legislation. Materials and Methods Indoor and outdoor environmental exposure (fine particulate matter [PM2.5], air nicotine, and dust 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK]) was monitored in 35 public places where smoking is prohibited by law in Goyang, Republic of Korea. Biomarkers of SHS exposure (urinary cotinine, hair nicotine, and urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanol) were measured in 37 non-smoking employees. Geometric means and standard deviations were used in comparison of each measure. Results Considerable exposure of SHS was detected at all indoor monitoring sites (PM2.5, 95.5 μg/m3 in private educational institutions; air nicotine, 0.77 μg/m3 in large buildings; and dust NNK, 160.3 pg/mg in large buildings); environmental measures were higher in private or closed locations, such as restrooms. Outdoor measures of SHS exposure were lowest in nurseries and highest in government buildings. Biochemical measures revealed a pattern of SHS exposure by monitoring site, and were highest in private educational institutions. Conclusion The evidence of SHS exposure in legislative smoke-free places in Korea suggests that incomplete smoke free legislation and lack of enforcement of it might not protect people from exposure to smoke. Therefore, active steps should be taken toward a comprehensive ban on smoking in all public places and its enforcement. Source

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