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Manne N.D.P.K.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Lima M.,University of South Carolina | Enos R.T.,University of South Carolina | Carson J.A.,University of South Carolina | Blough E.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems
International Journal of Oncology | Year: 2013

Cancer cachexia is a muscle wasting condition that occurs in response to a malignant growth in the body. The mechanisms regulating cardiac muscle mass with cachexia are not well understood. Using the ApcMin/+ mouse model of colorectal cancer, we investigated how cachexia affects the regulation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the heart. Compared to age-matched C57BL/6 (BL6) mice, ApcMin/+ body mass and heart mass were lower at 12 (11±5 and 8±3%, respectively) and 20 weeks (26±3 and 6±4%, respectively) of age (P<0.05). Diminished heart mass in the 20-week-old ApcMin/+ mice coincided with a decreased rate of myofibrillar protein synthesis and increased AMPKα phosphorylation. Cachexia decreased mTOR phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of the mTOR substrates, S6 ribosomal protein and 4EBP1 independent of Akt activation. These changes in mTOR-related protein signaling were accompanied by modest increases in the amount of Beclin1 but not protein ubiquitination or cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that loss of cardiac mass during cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse is associated with an Akt-independent suppression of anabolic signaling and evidence of increased autophagy.

Selvaraj V.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Bodapati S.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Rice K.M.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Winston N.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2014

Background: The increased use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) has caused new concerns about the potential exposure to biological systems and the potential risk that these materials may pose on human health. Here, we examined the effects of exposure to different concentrations (0-50 μg/mL) and incubation times (10 hours, 24 hours, or 48 hours) of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) NPs on human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Changes in cellular morphology, cell viability, cell membrane integrity, reactive oxygen species levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell death (apoptosis and necrosis), and the DNA damage after NP exposure were compared to the effects seen following incubation with paraquat, a known toxicant. Results: The 24-hour inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of Y2O3 NPs (41±5 nm in size) in the HEK293 cells was found to be 108 μg/mL. Incubation with Y2O3 NPs (12.25-50 μg/mL) increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 expression and promoted apoptotic- and necrotic-mediated cell death in both a concentration and a time-dependent manner. Decreases in cell survivability were associated with elevations in cellular reactive oxygen species levels, increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, and evidence of DNA damage, which were consistent with the possibility that mitochondria impairment may play an important role in the cytotoxic response. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that the Y2O3 NP exposure is associated with increased cellular apoptosis and necrosis in cultured HEK293 cells. © 2014 Selvaraj et al.

Asano S.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Asano S.,Pharmaceutical science and Research | Arvapalli R.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | Manne N.D.,Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2015

The severe inflammation observed during sepsis is thought to cause diaphragm dysfunction, which is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities suggesting that these particles may be of potential use for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. To investigate this possibility, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham control, CeO2 nanoparticle treatment only (0.5 mg/kg iv), sepsis, and sepsis+CeO2 nanoparticles. Sepsis was induced by the introduction of cecal material (600 mg/kg) directly into the peritoneal cavity. Nanoparticle treatment decreased sepsis-associated impairments in diaphragmatic contractile (Po) function (sham: 25.6±1.6 N/cm2 vs CeO2: 23.4±0.8 N/cm2, vs Sep: 15.9±1.0 N/cm2 vs Sep+CeO2: 20.0±1.0 N/cm2, P,0.05). These improvements in diaphragm contractile function were accompanied by a normalization of protein translation signaling (Akt, FOXO-1, and 4EBP1), diminished proteolysis (caspase 8 and ubiquitin levels), and decreased inflammatory signaling (Stat3 and iNOS). Histological analysis suggested that nanoparticle treatment was associated with diminished sarcolemma damage and diminished inflammatory cell infiltration. These data indicate CeO2 nanoparticles may improve diaphragmatic function in the septic laboratory rat. © 2015 Asano et al.

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