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Kang Y.-J.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Kang Y.-J.,Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases | Diao X.-N.,Veterinary Station | Zhao G.-Y.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | And 16 more authors.
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2014

Background: Bacteria of the order Rickettsiales (Alphaproteobacteria) are obligate intracellular parasites that infect species from virtually every major eukaryotic lineage. Several rickettsial genera harbor species that are significant emerging and re-emerging pathogens of humans. As species of Rickettsiales are associated with an extremely diverse host range, a better understanding of the historical associations between these bacteria and their hosts will provide important information on their evolutionary trajectories and, particularly, their potential emergence as pathogens. Results: Nine species of Rickettsiales (two in the genus Rickettsia, three in the genus Anaplasma, and four in the genus Ehrlichia) were identified in two species of hard ticks (Dermacentor nuttalli and Hyalomma asiaticum) from two geographic regions in Xinjiang through genetic analyses of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Notably, two lineages of Ehrlichia and one lineage of Anaplasma were distinct from any known Rickettsiales, suggesting the presence of potentially novel species in ticks in Xinjiang. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed some topological differences between the phylogenies of the bacteria and their vectors, which led us to marginally reject a model of exclusive bacteria-vector co-divergence. Conclusions: Ticks are an important natural reservoir of many diverse species of Rickettsiales. In this work, we identified a single tick species that harbors multiple species of Rickettsiales, and uncovered extensive genetic diversity of these bacteria in two tick species from Xinjiang. Both bacteria-vector co-divergence and cross-species transmission appear to have played important roles in Rickettsiales evolution. © 2014 Kang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Romantsov M.G.,St. Petersburg State Medical Academy | Sologub T.V.,St. Petersburg State Medical Academy | Goryacheva L.G.,Research Institute of Children Infections | Kovalenko S.N.,St Petersburg Branch Of Contemporary Humanitarian Academy | And 5 more authors.
Antibiotiki i Khimioterapiya | Year: 2010

The aspects of virus hepatitis C immunopathogenesis are discussed. The main attention is paid to higher production of Th1 cytokines providing active protection of the host from HCV. The up-to-date approaches to the therapy of chronic hepatitis C, described in the literature and the original ones, including the triple therapy with immunomodulators of various mechanisms of action, i.e. cycloferon (injections and tablets), galavit and derinat are presented. The comparative efficacy of the therapy is estimated. Cycloferon is shown to be the drug of choice in the treatment of patients with virus hepatitis addicted to narcotics. The clinical and laboratory efficacy of the metabolic hepatoprotector remaxol with antioxidant activity is described. Its high effictivity and satisfactory tolerability (side effects requiring discontinuation of the drug use were recorded only in 0.3% of the cases), as well as the minimal risk of no biochemical remission after its use allow to conseder remaxol as a highly efficient metabolic hepatoprotector for pathogenetic therapy of chronic hepatitis.

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