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Nass R.,University of Virginia | Nikolayev A.,Eli Lilly and Company | Liu J.,University of Virginia | Pezzoli S.S.,University of Virginia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Background: Acyl-ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide released from the stomach. Ghrelin O-acyl transferase (GOAT) attaches an 8-carbon medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) (octanoate) to serine 3 of ghrelin. This acylation is necessary for the activity of ghrelin. Animal data suggest that MCFAs provide substrate for GOAT and an increase in nutritional octanoate increases acyl-ghrelin. Objectives: To address the question of the source of substrate for acylation, we studied whether the decline in ghrelin acylation during fasting is associated with a decline in circulating MCFAs. Methods: Eight healthy young men (aged 18-28 years, body mass index range, 20.6-26.2 kg/m2) had blood drawn every 10 minutes for acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin and every hour for free fatty acids (FFAs) during the last 24 hours of a 61.5-hour fast and during a fed day. FFAs were measured by a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy method. Acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin were measured in an in-house assay; the results were published previously. Ghrelin acylation was assessed by the ratio of acyl-ghrelin to total ghrelin. Results: With the exception of MCFAs C8 and C10, all other FFAs, the MCFAs (C6 and C12), and the long-chain fatty acids (C14-C18) significantly increased with fasting (P α .05). There was no significant association between the fold change in ghrelin acylation and circulating FFAs. Conclusions: These results suggest that changes in circulating MCFAs are not linked to the decline in ghrelin acylation during fasting and support the hypothesis that acylation of ghrelin depends at least partially on the availability of gastroluminal MCFAs or the regulation of GOAT activity. © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Source


Nass R.,Center for Diabetes Technology | Farhy L.S.,Center for Diabetes Technology | Liu J.,Center for Diabetes Technology | Pezzoli S.S.,Center for Diabetes Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Background: Acyl-ghrelin is thought to have both orexigenic effects and to stimulate GH release. A possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an age-dependent decrease in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to compare acyl-ghrelin and GH concentrations between healthy old and young adults and to examine the relationship of acyl-ghrelin and GH secretion in both age groups. Methods: Six healthy older adults (age 62-74 y, body mass index range 20.9-29 kg/m2) and eight healthy young men (aged 18-28 y, body mass index range 20.6-26.2 kg/m2) had frequent blood samples drawn for hormone measurements every 10 minutes for 24 hours. Ghrelin was measured in an in-house, two-site sandwich ELISA specific for full-length acyl-ghrelin. GH was measured in a sensitive assay (Immulite 2000), and GH peaks were determined by deconvolution analysis. The acyl-ghrelin/GH association was estimated from correlations between amplitudes of individual GH secretory events and the average acyl-ghrelin concentration in the 60-minute interval preceding each GH burst. Results: Twenty-four-hour mean (±SEM) GH (0.48 ± 0.14 vs 2.2 ± 0.3 μg/L, P < .005) and acylghrelin (14.7 ± 2.3 vs 27.8 ± 3.9 pg/mL, P < .05) levels were significantly lower in older adults comparedwithyoungadults. Twenty-four-hour cortisol concentrationswerehigher in the old than the young adults (15.1 ± 1.0 vs 10.6 ± 0.9 μg/dL, respectively, P < .01). The ghrelin/GH association was more than 3-fold lower in the older group compared with the young adults (0.16 ± 0.12 vs 0.69 ± 0.04, P < .001). Conclusions: These results provide further evidence of an age-dependent decline in circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, which might play a role both in the decline of GH and in the anorexia of aging. Our data also suggest that with normal aging, endogenous acyl-ghrelin levels are less tightly linked to GH regulation. Copyright © 2014 by the Endocrine Society. Source

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