Mohindra K.S.,University of Ottawa |
Narayana D.,Center for Development Studies |
Anushreedha S.S.,Center for Development Studies
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2011
Background: Alcohol consumption in India is disproportionately higher among poorer and socially marginalised groups, notably Scheduled Tribes (STs). We lack an understanding of STs own views with regard to alcohol, which is important for implementing appropriate interventions. Methods: This study was undertaken with the Paniyas (a previously enslaved ST) in a rural community in Kerala, South India. The study, nested in a participatory poverty and health assessment (PPHA). PPHA aims to enable marginalized groups to define, describe, analyze, and express their own perceptions through a combination of qualitative methods and participatory approaches (e.g. participatory mapping and ranking exercises). We worked with 5 Paniya colonies between January and June 2008. Results: Alcohol is viewed as a problem among the Paniyas who reported that consumption is increasing, notably among younger men. Alcohol is easily available in licensed shops and is produced illicitly in some colonies. There is evidence that local employers are using alcohol to attract Paniyas for work. Male alcohol consumption is associated with a range of social and economic consequences that are rooted in historical oppression and social discrimination. Conclusion: Future research should examine the views of alcohol use among a variety of marginalised groups in developing countries and the different policy options available for these populations. In addition, there is a need for studies that untangle the potential linkages between both historical and current exploitation of marginalized populations and alcohol use. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Dharmalingam A.,Monash University |
Navaneetham K.,Center for Development Studies |
Krishnakumar C.S.,Center for Development Studies
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2010
Objectives In this paper we examine the role of mothers' nutritional status and socio-biological aspects in determining the birth weight of their most recent child. Methods We used data from the second Indian National Family Health Survey conducted in 1998-1999. Analysis is based on children born within 12 months prior to the survey date (N = 10,042). We used a subjective measure of the size of infant at birth as an indicator for birth weight and employed logistic regression to estimate the effect of BMI and other determinants on birth weight of children in India as a whole and for 17 states separately. Results and Conclusions Results show that mothers' nutritional status is the most important determinant of newborn children's birth weight. Safe drinking water, use of antenatal care and iron deficient anaemia were also significant contributors to low birth weight. Mothers' BMI impact is more pervasive across India than the impact of other factors on birth weight. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Mallick H.,Center for Development Studies |
Mahalik M.K.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Journal of Property Research | Year: 2015
Using quarterly data (2010Q1–2013Q4), the study makes an initial attempt to explain the housing prices for 15 major cities of different regions in India. The overall result demonstrates that there is a dominance of fundamental factors over the non-fundamental factor (speculative factors) in explaining the regional housing prices. Further, among the fundamental factors, it is observed that the share price index, non-food bank credit and foreign direct investment positively explain the housing prices, while inflation rate and a partial measure of wealth (i.e. market capitalisation) negatively explain the same. The price of gold, real effective exchange rate and net portfolio investments don’t have any influence on the housing prices. This could to some extent signify a lack of market integration among various asset markets in the Indian situation. This might also be the reason for the lesser role of speculative factors in the Indian housing market. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Mallick H.,Center for Development Studies |
Mahalik M.K.,Center for Development Studies
Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics | Year: 2010
On empirically examining the importance of construction sector in propelling economic growth rate in India, the study has found that in the presence of the dominant influence of capital stock, the impact of the construction sector gets blurred or neutralized. Once capital stock is dropped from the model, the construction sector emerges as a significant determinant of economic growth, while other financial variables such as interest rate and non-food bank credit including the financial liberalization dummy do not play significant roles in economic growth. However, from an investigation of the impact of the construction sector on economic growth through the channel of employment, it is seen that the construction sector might be impacting the growth rate through increasing employment and thereby increasing the aggregate output in the economy. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008.
Mishra U.S.,Center for Development Studies
Evaluation and Program Planning | Year: 2016
Measurement of achievement or progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) should be suggestive of the issues involved in intertemporal comparison. Commonly, we observe that the measurement techniques such as simple differentials, rates and ratios are employed for comparisons and interpretations. But such chosen measures are insensitive to two very important and fundamental concerns. Firstly, such measures are not differentially sensitive to the base level of the indicator against which comparisons are made to comment on the progress or achievement. Secondly, it is observed that in most of the progress assessments and comparisons, without exception, the focus is on population averages thus ignoring the inherent inequalities therein. To incorporate these two concerns, a method is proposed and an illustrative application is provided to review the MDG achievements in child health across 32 developing countries. The adopted technique is effective for comparison and interpretation of progress and achievement as it augments the principles of equity as well as base-level sensitivity. More importantly, such an improved measure could help the policymakers to identify achievements in a more realistic manner and thus develop a comprehensive vision regarding social and economic achievements. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Padmanabhan N.,Center for Development Studies
Antipode | Year: 2012
Supported by the labour geography framework, I analyse how spatial practices of labour shape the economic geography of capitalism, by looking into a model not at a global but at a very local scale of organisation and showing its effectiveness while confronting social actors organised at global or extra-local scales. Questioning global stereotypes on economic responses to globalisation, I argue that labour becomes actively involved in the very process of globalisation and the expansion of capital, empirically demonstrating the relevance of this in the globalisation literature. I deal with one region-Kerala-and processes in its labour markets, taking the case of apparel workers in an export-promoting industrial park. © 2011 The Author Antipode © 2011 Antipode Foundation Ltd..
Choragudi S.,Center for Development Studies
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013
Revisiting and uplifting Solar Energy sector is one of the major steps taken by India in its pursuit for sustainable development in the recent past. The present paper, though appreciates this move, makes a case for less focused tail-end solar applications: Solar Off-grid Lighting Systems (SOLS), Solar Lanterns and Solar Home Lighting Systems. Following a critical review of the policies, we present an overview of SOLS-diffusion trend in the past one and a half decades; the pattern of diffusion across states and financial assistance allotted for development and promotion of SOLS. We examine the adoption pattern at household level and factors that determine the same employing a multinomial logit model. Installation of SOLS witnessed a declining trend over the years. States exhibited considerable variation in the installation of the two SOLS and the funds allocated by the central government are not comparable to their respective energy poverty intensity. It is encouraging to note that more than half of the SOLS adopters find it an adequate source of energy. Improvement in the status and increase in the cost of alternative sources of energy adversely influence the household's choice of using SOLS as a complementary source of energy; improvement in the status of SOLS and increase in the financial strength of the household encourages them to adopt one. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mani S.,Center for Development Studies
International Journal of Technology and Globalisation | Year: 2010
There is a general feeling among both the academic and business communities across the world that the India is becoming an important location for the release of a number of innovations. In the context, the paper systematically puts together the empirical evidence on whether this is indeed the case since the reform process of 1991. The ensuing analysis shows that the growth in innovations is not widespread but concentrated in certain specific sectoral systems of innovation such as in the case of the pharmaceutical industry. Also most of the recent innovative activities could be traced to foreign companies operating from the country. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Thomas S.V.,Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology |
Nair A.,Center for Development Studies
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2011
Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.
Dilip T.R.,Center for Development Studies
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2010
Background There is a gap in knowledge on the overall role and characteristics of private health care providers in India. This research is aimed at understanding changes in the consumption of inpatient care services from private hospitals between 1986 and 2004, with a particular focus on equitable outreach.Methods Secondary analysis of National Sample Survey data on the utilization of inpatient care services in Kerala is performed for the periods 1986-87, 1995-96 and 2004. Household survey data are examined to understand the users of the private health system as there are limitations in obtaining reliable data from unregulated private health care providers.Finding The annual hospitalization rate increased from 69 per 1000 population in 1986-87 to 126 per 1000 population by 2004. The proportion of persons seeking care from private rather than government hospitals increased from 55 in 1986-87 to 65 by 2004. Concentration indices revealed that the year 1995-96 witnessed the highest income inequality in hospitalization rates. A decline both in hospitalization rates and in the relative preference for private hospitals over government hospitals among the poorest two quintiles between 1986-87 and 1995-96 indicates that the poor avoided inpatient treatment. The rich-poor divide in care seeking from private hospitals was moderated by 2004.Conclusion Improvements in the purchasing power of the population, and the strategy of private hospitals in this highly competitive market to generate revenue from the poorer quintiles by offering different pricing options, have reduced the observed rich-poor divide in the consumption of inpatient treatment from this sector. However, while this gap in utilization has closed, the burden of out-of-pocket expenditure is higher among the poor. © The Author 2010; all rights reserved.