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Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Mbuagbaw L.,Biostatistics Unit | Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Van Der Kop M.L.,University of British Columbia | And 13 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2013

Introduction: Mobile phone text messaging is emerging as an important tool in the care of people living with HIV; however, reports diverge on its efficacy in improving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and little is known about which patient groups may benefit most from phone-based adherence interventions. We will conduct an individual patient data meta-analysis to investigate the overall and subgroup effects of text messaging in three recently published text-messaging randomised controlled trials. Methods and analysis: Data from two Kenyan and one Cameroonian trial will be verified, reformatted and merged. We will determine pooled effect sizes for text messaging versus standard care for improving adherence to ART using individual patient randomeffects meta-analysis. We will test for the interaction effects of age, gender, level of education and duration on ART. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted with regard to thresholds for adherence, methods of handling missing data and fixed-effects meta-analysis. Only anonymised data will be collected from the individual studies. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained for the individual studies. The results of this paper will be disseminated as peer-reviewed publications, at conferences and as part of a doctoral thesis. This individual patient data meta-analysis may provide important insights into the effects of text messaging on ART adherence in different subpopulations, with important implications for programme implementation involving such interventions and future research.

Griffiths U.K.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mounier-Jack S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Oliveira-Cruz V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Balabanova D.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2011

Elimination and eradication initiatives are generally delivered through a vertical approach, which can potentially hamper health systems. We propose 3 approaches by which a measles eradication initiative can ensure that health systems are left strengthened when the eradication goal has been accomplished. First, focus should be placed on strengthening routine vaccination, which could generate positive trickle-up effects on other primary health care services. Second, increased integration with multifunctional health services should be emphasized. Third, efforts should be made to change traditional donor behavior that prioritizes vaccination campaigns and uses uncoordinated staff incentives. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Motaze N.V.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews | Year: 2013

Respiratory distress (RD) can occur in both preterm and term neonates born through normal vaginal delivery or caesarean section (CS). It accounts for about 30% of neonatal deaths and can occur at any time following birth. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), transient tachypnoea (rapid breathing) of the newborn and persistent pulmonary hypertension (increased blood pressure of pulmonary vessels) of the newborn are the most frequent clinical presentations of neonatal RD. Prostaglandins are used in routine obstetric practice to ripen the uterine cervix and to trigger labour, with those of the E series being preferred over others due to the fact that they are more uteroselective. Administration of prostaglandins to an expectant mother before delivery causes reabsorption of lung fluid from the fetal lung and promotes surfactant secretion by inducing a catecholamine surge. As a result, significant reduction in neonatal respiratory morbidity following a CS could be obtained, leading to reduced long-term complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (chronic lung disease with lung tissue modification) and asthma. The objective of this review was to determine if administration of prostaglandins before CS can improve respiratory outcomes of newborns. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2013). We also searched three clinical trial registries; ClinicalTrials.gov, the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), for ongoing studies (24 June 2013). We included all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials comparing the use of prostaglandins with other treatments (including placebo) to reduce neonatal respiratory morbidity. Participants were pregnant women with an indication for a CS, and we compared administration of prostaglandins prior to CS with no treatment, placebo or another treatment. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and assessed trial quality, with the third review author referred to for settling any disagreements. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We used the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in the included study and contacted the study authors to request additional information where appropriate. We found one randomised controlled trial with a low risk of bias which was carried out in a tertiary neonatal care centre in Australia. The study involved 36 women (18 received intravaginal prostaglandin E 2 gel and 18 received placebo).There was one case of neonatal respiratory distress in the control group, which the trialist reported as transient tachypnoea of the newborn (risk ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 7.68, one study, n = 36).None of the neonates required mechanical ventilation and the trial authors reported median Apgar scores at one and five minutes as being similar in both groups.There were no treatment-related side effects in either group. Noradrenaline concentrations (median values (range)) were reported as being significantly higher in the cord blood samples of the intervention group compared to the control group. Although the trial authors reported a significant increase in catecholamine levels in the intervention group, there was no significant difference in the respiratory outcomes between intervention and control groups. The quality of evidence was graded as low because the sample size was small and there were few events. No definite conclusions can thus be drawn on the effects of prostaglandins on neonatal respiratory outcomes from this review.

Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Mbuagbaw L.,Father Sean ullivan Research Center | Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Mursleen S.,McMaster University | And 7 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: Strong international commitment and the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy have led to higher longevity for people living with human immune deficiency virus (HIV). Text messaging interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes in people living with HIV. The objectives of this overview were to: map the state of the evidence of text messaging interventions, identify knowledge gaps, and develop a framework for the transfer of evidence to other chronic diseases. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of systematic reviews on text messaging interventions to improve health or health related outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE (Exerpta Medica Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PsycINFO, Web of Science (WoS) and the Cochrane Library on the 17th April 2014. Screening, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality were done in duplicate. Our findings were used to develop a conceptual framework for transfer. Results: Our search identified 135 potential systematic reviews of which nine were included, reporting on 37 source studies, conducted in 19 different countries. Seven of nine (77.7%) of these reviews were high quality. There was some evidence for text messaging as a tool to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Text messages also improved attendance at appointments and behaviour change outcomes. The findings were inconclusive for self-management of illness, treatment of tuberculosis and communicating results of medical investigations. The geographical distribution of text messaging research was limited to specific regions of the world. Prominent knowledge gaps included the absence of data on long term outcomes, patient satisfaction, and economic evaluations. The included reviews also identified methodological limitations in many of the primary studies. Conclusions: Global evidence supports the use of text messaging as a tool to improve adherence to medication and attendance at scheduled appointments. Given the similarities between HIV and other chronic diseases (long-term medications, life-long care, strong link to behaviour and the need for home-based support) evidence from HIV may be transferred to these diseases using our proposed framework by integration of HIV and chronic disease services or direct transfer © 2015 Mbuagbaw et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Mbuagbaw L.,McMaster University | Mbuagbaw L.,Biostatistics Unit | Mbuagbaw L.,Center for Development of Best Practices in Health | Sivaramalingam B.,University of Guelph | And 5 more authors.
AIDS Patient Care and STDs | Year: 2015

We sought to review the effectiveness of interventions designed to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) from studies included in a recent Cochrane review that reported a clinical and an adherence outcome, with at least 80% follow-up for 6 months or more. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate, with an adjudicator for disagreements. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Of 182 relevant studies in the Cochrane review, 49 were related to ART. Statistical pooling was not warranted due to heterogeneity in interventions, participants, treatments, adherence measures and outcomes. Many studies had high risk of bias in elements of design and outcome ascertainment. Only 10 studies improved both adherence and clinical outcomes. These used the following interventions: adherence counselling (two studies); a once-daily regimen (compared to twice daily); text messaging; web-based cognitive behavioral intervention; face-to-face multi-session intensive behavioral interventions (two studies); contingency management; modified directly observed therapy; and nurse-delivered home visits combined with telephone calls. Patient-related adherence interventions were the most frequently tested. Uniform adherence measures and higher quality studies of younger populations are encouraged. © Copyright 2015, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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