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Shimada H.,National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology | Kato T.,Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Technology | Ito K.,Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Technology | Makizako H.,National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology | And 5 more authors.
European Neurology | Year: 2012

Aim: The current study sought to determine which types of cognitive function are related to atrophy of the bilateral medial temporal areas including the entorhinal cortex (MTA-ERC) in elderly adults. Methods: The subjects were 96 elderly adults (mean age 75.3 years) with mild cognitive impairment. Subjects underwent Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, logical memory I and II (WMS-R, LM I and II), Rey complex figure retention tests after 3 and 30 min (RCF-3 min and RCF-30 min), digit span backword (DSB), digit symbol-coding (DSC), Stroop Color and Word Test-Interference List (SCWT-IL) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and were divided into elderly adults without or with mild to moderate MTA-ERC atrophy, and those with severe atrophy. Results: In all subjects, MTA-ERC atrophy showed significant relationships with age (r = 0.43), education (r = -0.25), WMS-R, LM I (r = -0.21), DSC (r = -0.32), and SCWT-IL (r = 0.32). The mild to moderate atrophy group showed significant relationships between MTA-ERC atrophy and age (r = 0.34), DSC (r = -0.28), and SCWT-IL (r = 0.25). In contrast, in the severe atrophy group, MTA-ERC atrophy was correlated significantly with RCF-3 min (r = -0.70) and RCF-30 min (r = -0.74). The linear regression model included demographic variables and cognitive tests; two variables to survive the step-wise analysis were age (β = 0.374) and SCWT-IL (β = 0.247) in all subjects. Age (β = 0.301), and RCF-30 min (β = -0.521) and age (β = 0.460) remained as a significant variable in the mild to moderate atrophy and severe atrophy groups, respectively. Conclusion: Executive function tests such as SCWT-IL may be useful as a screening tool to identify mild to moderate MTA-ERC atrophy and a decline in the RCF test may suggest severe MTA-ERC atrophy in elderly adults with MCI. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Doi T.,Section for Health Promotion | Doi T.,Kobe University | Shimada H.,Section for Health Promotion | Makizako H.,Section for Health Promotion | And 5 more authors.
Geriatrics and Gerontology International | Year: 2013

Aim: The detection of the early stages in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is considered important in diagnosing progression to Alzheimer's disease. The current study sought to investigate differences in cognitive function between control subjects with no memory loss (control), and subjects in the early stage of aMCI (EMCI) and late stage of aMCI (LMCI). Methods: A total of 100 community-dwelling older adults aged 65years and over were recruited from 1543 potential subjects. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the degree of objective memory impairment; control (n=29), EMCI (n=34) and LMCI (n=37). Multiple neuropsychological tests were carried out to examine cognitive function. Results: The EMCI individuals showed lower cognitive function relative to controls; not only in logical memory, but also in letter fluency (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in neuropsychological scores between the EMCI and LMCI groups, except for category fluency and logical memory. In addition, the EMCI subjects' logical memory score showed a significant relationship with letter fluency, category fluency and digit span backward test performance (P<0.05). Conclusions: These results suggest that the application of multiple neuropsychological tests might be useful in diagnosing older adults with EMCI and LMCI. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

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