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Arun Kumar K.A.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India
2013 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technologies, ICT 2013 | Year: 2013

Frequency-hopping is a method by which the carrier of a transmitting radio signal will rapidly switch among many frequency channels, using a pseudorandom sequence known to both transmitter and receiver. This rapid switching of the carrier frequencies during transmission will minimize the unauthorized interception or jamming of telecommunications. Any radio with a digitally controllable frequency synthesizer can work as a hopping radio. The Frequency synthesizer has a limitation that the frequency band is limited, so for supporting wider band more synthesizers are required which will consume more area in the board and power consumption will be larger. Here the hopping synthesizer is implemented using partial Re-configuration so that the user can load different NCOs in FPGAs depending on the requirements and as a result a wide range of frequency band is supported. The security of a hopping radio mainly depends on the Pseudo-random sequence generator which will generate the control word for the frequency synthesizer (DDS). The Blum-Blum-Shub generator (BBS) is cryptographically secure random sequence generator. In BBS algorithm the randomness is achieved by modulo squaring a number and extracting a set of lower bits from the generated numbers]. The generated random numbers control a Direct Data Synthesizer (DDS) to produce the required hopping frequencies. Here the design consists of a static part and Dynamic part. The Pseudo random number generator will form the static part and a frequency table and the DDS will form the dynamic part. The entire system is implemented in a Virtex-6 FPGA using VHDL and verified using Hardware-in the - Loop Simulation in the Matlab Environment. © 2013 IEEE. Source


Kumar D.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India
IET Wireless Sensor Systems | Year: 2014

Over the last couple of decades, clustering-based protocols are believed to be the best for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (WSNs) because they work on the principle of divide and conquer. In this study, the authors propose and evaluate two new clustering-based protocols for heterogeneous WSNs, which are called single-hop energy-efficient clustering protocol (S-EECP) and multi-hop energy-efficient clustering protocol (M-EECP). In S-EECP, the cluster heads (CHs) are elected by a weighted probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and average energy of the network. The nodes with high initial energy and residual energy will have more chances to be elected as CHs than nodes with low energy whereas in M-EECP, the elected CHs communicate the data packets to the base station via multi-hop communication approach. To analyse the lifetime of the network, the authors assume three types of sensor nodes equipped with different battery energy. Finally, simulation results indicate that the authors protocols prolong network lifetime, and achieve load balance among the CHs better than the existing clustering protocols. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014. Source


Ananda Mohan P.V.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing | Year: 2016

In this short paper, we present two techniques to perform residue number system (RNS) to binary conversion using diagonal function and show the relationship between the techniques for RNS to binary conversion using Chinese remainder theorem and diagonal function. We also consider RNS to binary conversion using another monotonic function due to Pirlo and Impedovo. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Jain P.C.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India
IETE Technical Review (Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers, India) | Year: 2011

A body area network is a wireless network of biomedical sensors that are attached to a human body. The aim of wireless body area network (WBAN) is to facilitate continuously recording and monitoring of a person′s health condition, if needed, over a long-distance communication network. A sensing system is to be worn by the individual for a long duration. The hardware must be compact and light. This limits the size of the battery. These factors have made energy the most critical resource in WBAN and extending system lifetime has become a priority to fully realize the capabilities of WBAN. This paper presents design and system integration of WBAN technology along with issues and technical challenges of WBAN. Source


Panwar M.,Center for Development of Advanced Computing of India
2012 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Applications, ICCCA 2012 | Year: 2012

Pattern recognition and Gesture recognition are the growing fields of research. Being a significant part in non verbal communication hand gestures are playing vital role in our daily life. Hand Gesture recognition system provides us an innovative, natural, user friendly way of interaction with the computer which is more familiar to the human beings. Gesture Recognition has a wide area of application including human machine interaction, sign language, immersive game technology etc. By keeping in mind the similarities of human hand shape with four fingers and one thumb, this paper aims to present a real time system for hand gesture recognition on the basis of detection of some meaningful shape based features like orientation, centre of mass (centroid), status of fingers, thumb in terms of raised or folded fingers of hand and their respective location in image. The approach introduced in this paper is totally depending on the shape parameters of the hand gesture. It does not consider any other mean of hand gesture recognition like skin color, texture because these image based features are extremely variant to different light conditions and other influences. To implement this approach we have utilized a simple web cam which is working on 20 fps with 7 mega pixel intensity. On having the input sequence of images through web cam it uses some pre-processing steps for removal of background noise and employs K-means clustering for segmenting the hand object from rest of the background, so that only segmented significant cluster or hand object is to be processed in order to calculate shape based features. This simple shape based approach to hand gesture recognition can identify around 45 different gestures on the bases of 5 bit binary string resulted as the output of this algorithm. This proposed implemented algorithm has been tested over 450 images and it gives approximate recognition rate of 94%. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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