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Liu H.W.,Center for Control and Prevention
Zhonghua shi yan he lin chuang bing du xue za zhi = Zhonghua shiyan he linchuang bingduxue zazhi = Chinese journal of experimental and clinical virology | Year: 2011

To characterize the Gag-Specific T lymphocyte responses and identify immunodominant region recognized in Chinese HIV-1 recombinant subtype B/C infectors. 10 antiretroviral treatment (ART) naive HIV-1 recombinant subtype B/C infectors with infected time in 1 year, 25 ART-naive infectors with infected time > 3 years and 10 HIV-1-seronegative healthy individuals were enrolled. HIV-1-specific T lymphocyte responses were analyzed by an IFN-gamma Elispot assay against 123 overlapping peptides spanning HIV-1 Gag protein in the present study. Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses of interferon-gamma secretion were identified in 8(8/10) Chinese HIV-1 recombinant subtype B/ C infectors with infected time in 1 year, the specific T lymphocytes are mainly targeted at five seperated peptides. Responses were identified in 17(68%) infectors with infected time more than 3 years, the specific T lymphocytes are mainly targeted at one peptide in p17 and six in p24. There was obviously positive correlation (P = 0.0318, r = 0.519) between the magnitude of responses and viremia in infectors infected time > 3 years. The magnitude of response in infectors infected in 1 year was significantly higher than group infected time > 3 years (P = 0.021). None of healthy individuals produced positive responses. HIV-1 recombinant subtype B/C Infectors at different stages of diseases recognize different region of gag.

Zhang G.,NationalCenter For Control and Prevention | Zhang G.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wong M.,NationalCenter For Control and Prevention | Yi P.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2010

Objective: To assess HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and associated risk factors among miners in Yunnan, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1798 miners in 2 townships of Gejiu City, Yunnan, from March to May 2006. Standardized interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed and specimens collected for HIV/STI testing. Results: The prevalence of HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, herpes simplex virus-2, and any STIs among all miners was 0.7%, 4.8%, 0.8%, 1.8%, 9.6%, and 14.9%, respectively. One fifth of miners reported patronizing female sex workers (FSWs) at least once, and of these, 72% never used a condom with a FSW. Miners who visited FSWs had a higher prevalence of HIV (1.8% vs. 0.5%) and any STI (23.2% vs. 4.3%), including C. trachomatis (6.9% vs. 4.3%), N. gonorrhoeae (2.1% vs. 0.5%), and herpes simplex virus-2 (14.9% vs. 8.4%), and higher rates of illegal drug use compared with miners who visited no FSWs. Conclusions: High prevalence of HIV/STIs among miners in Gejiu warrants special attention to this population, and vigorous interventions should address both sexual and drug use-related risk. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Teeter L.D.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Ha N.P.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Ma X.,Houston Methodist Research Institute | Wenger J.,Center for Infectious Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Tuberculosis | Year: 2013

Tuberculosis genotypic clustering is used as a proxy for recent transmission. The association between clustering and recent transmission becomes problematic when the genotyping method lacks specificity in defining a cluster, as well as for clusters with extensive jurisdictional histories and/or common genotypes. We investigated the four largest spoligotype/12 loci MIRU-VNTR-defined clusters in Harris County, Texas from 2006-2012 to determine their historical contribution to tuberculosis morbidity, estimate the contributions from recent and remote transmission, and determine the impact of secondary genotyping on cluster definition. The clusters contained 189, 64, 51 and 38 cases. Each cluster was linked to cluster(s) previously identified by Houston Tuberculosis Initiative; 3 since 1995 and the fourth in 2002. Among cases for which timing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission relative to tuberculosis disease could be ascertained, nearly equal proportions were associated with recent and remote transmission. The extent to which genotyping with an additional 12 MIRU-VNTR loci modified the cluster definition varied from little or no impact for the two smaller clusters to moderate impact for the larger clusters. Tuberculosis control measures to reduce morbidity associated with large clusters must involve strategies to identify and treat individuals who recently acquired infection, as well as persons infected for years. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Yuan Y.,Center for Control and Prevention
Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine] | Year: 2011

To understand the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance and its main factors in AIDS patients receiving to HAART in Zhecheng county, Henan province. By cross-sectional survey, 378 AIDS patients who had received the national free antiretroviral therapy from July 2003 to March 2009 in Zhecheng county of Henan were selected. All recruits were interviewed and blood samples were collected. HIV-1 viral loads were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, HIV genotypic resistance was determined by an in-house polymerase chain reaction to amplify the HIV-1 pol gene region. Among 378 subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy, the prevalence of successful viral suppression was 42.9% (162/378), and HIV-1 drug resistance was detected in 47.1% (178/378) patients. The rate of resistance-associated mutations to non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) was 46.6% (176/378), 37.8% (143/378) and 1.9% (7/378), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the main risk factors associated with the prevalence of drug resistance included drug non-adherence (ratio of on-time drug intake in the past month < 90%:≥ 90% = 64.5% (40/62):43.7% (138/316), OR = 2.3, 95%CI: 1.3 - 4.1), and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) with didanosine (DDI) (ART with DDI:ART with lamivudine (3TC) = 53.3% (137/257):33.9% (41/121), OR = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.1 - 4.5). The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance among ART patients in Zhecheng county of Henan was high. Drug non-adherence and initiation of ART with DDI were the main factors of drug resistance.

Cui W.G.,Center for Control and Prevention
Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi | Year: 2013

To understand the prevalence of drug resistance in AIDS patients who had been receiving HAART in a long run, in Shenqiu county, Henan province. This cross-sectional study included 120 HIV infected patients who began receiving ART (antiretroviral therapy) in 2003. Viral loads and CD(4)(+) T cells counts were measured, and In-house drug resistance test was performed in VL > 1000 copies/ml patients. 114 cases out of 120 patients had complete viral load data. Among them, 33 cases having viral loads less than 50 copies/ml, and the remaining viral loads showed an average of lg (4.09 ± 1.10) copies/ml. The average of CD(4)(+) T cell counts was (377 ± 218) cells/ml, with 64 (53.3%) cases showing their CD(4)(+) T cell counts higher than 350 cells/ml. In 67 patients, 58 of them showed genotypic resistance, and 40 cases showed reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) resistance. The ratios of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) resistance were 53.4% (31/58) and 67.2% (39/58), respectively. There were no differences of drug resistance ratio in the three treatment programs. The highest drug resistance rates in NRTIs and NNRTIs were zidovudine, lamivudine, nevirapine. However, protease inhibitors (PIs) resistance variants were not found. The prevalence of drug-resistant strains seemed to be high in Shenqiu country, Henan province. Long-term follow-up monitoring strategy should be developed to optimize the timely treatment programs.

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