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Bijelo Polje, Montenegro

Jovancevic M.,Center for Continental Fruit growing | Balijagic J.,Center for Continental Fruit growing | Menkovic N.,Institute for Medicinal Plants Research | sAvikin K.,Institute for Medicinal Plants Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research | Year: 2011

Wild bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is very important natural resource of Montenegro. In our study, bilberries were collected in the summer of 2009, from 11 different localities in mountain region of Montenegro (altitude ranged from 665 to 1700 m a.s.l.). The samples were freezed immediately and stored at -25°C until the analysis were done. The total phenolics were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu method with slight modifications while the amounts of anthocyanins were analyzed according to the prescription of European Pharmacopoea 6.0. Anthocyanin aglycones were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after acid hydrolysis. Total phenolic content was determined in all analyzed samples and it ranged from 3.92 to 5.24 mgGAE/g fw. The amounts of total anthocyanins varied between 0.27 to 0.46%. Among eleven analyzed samples, 10 corresponded to the prescriptions of European Pharmacopoea 6.0. Significant correlation between total phenolics and total anthocyanins was noticed (r = 0.843, P < 0.01). Higher amounts of total phenolics and total anthocyanins were detected in samples harvested from localities more exposed to the sun in comparison with berries grown in shadow. Five cyanidin aglycones (delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin, and malvidin) were quantified after acid hydrolysis, where delphinidin was the most abundant in all samples (0.33 to 0.75 mg/g fw). © 2011 Academic Journals.

Balijagic J.,Center for Continental Fruit growing | Jankovic T.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Zdunic G.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic | Boskovic J.,Megatrend University | And 5 more authors.
Natural Product Communications | Year: 2012

LC-ESI-MS and HPLC were used for the identification of the constituents from G. lutea leaves collected at different localities, as well as for quantification of the main compounds. Seven secoiridoids, five C-glucoflavones and three xanthones, were identified. Swertiamarin derivatives, namely eustomorusside (2), eustomoside (3) and septemfidoside (5), were detected in G. lutea for the first time. Concentrations of five constituents (swertiamarin, gentiopicrin, isovitexin, mangiferin and isogentisin) were determined. The relationship between concentrations of γ-pyrones and altitude was observed with statistically significant correlation (r = 0.94). The extracts were also evaluated for their content of total phenolics, and antiradical and cytotoxic activities. The total phenolics content ranged from 7.7 to 12.7 mg GAE/g, and the IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activity varied between 0.45 to 2.02 mg/mL. The leaf extract exhibited moderate cytotoxic effects toward HeLa cells with an IC50 value of 41.1 μg/mL, while gentiopicrin, mangiferin and isogentisin exerted strong activity against HeLa cells, with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 to 8.8 μg/mL. The results confirm the traditional usage of G. lutea leaves and also suggest their possible utilization as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory agents.

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