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Kline A.D.,Harvey Institute for Human Genetics | Calof A.L.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | Schaaf C.A.,Saint Louis University | Krantz I.D.,Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is the prototype for the cohesinopathy disorders that have mutations in genes associated with the cohesin subunit in all cells. Roberts syndrome is the next most common cohesinopathy. In addition to the developmental implications of cohesin biology, there is much translational and basic research, with progress towards potential treatment for these conditions. Clinically, there are many issues in CdLS faced by the individual, parents and caretakers, professionals, and schools. The following abstracts are presentations from the 5th Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Scientific and Educational Symposium on June 20-21, 2012, in conjunction with the Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Foundation National Meeting, Lincolnshire, IL. The research committee of the CdLS Foundation organizes the meeting, reviews and accepts abstracts and subsequently disseminates the information to the families. In addition to the basic science and clinical discussions, there were educationally-focused talks related to practical aspects of management at home and in school. AMA CME credits were provided by Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD. Report © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Szymanska A.F.,UCICA | Doty M.,UCICA | Scannell K.V.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | Nenadic Z.,UCICA
2014 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2014 | Year: 2014

Multi-sensor extracellular recording takes advantage of several electrode channels to record from multiple neurons at the same time. However, the resulting low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) combined with biological noise makes signal detection, the first step of any neurophysiological data analysis, difficult. A matched filter was therefore designed to better detect extracellular action potentials (EAPs) from multi-sensor extracellular recordings. The detector was tested on tetrode data from a locust antennal lobe and assessed against three trained analysts. 25 EAPs and noise samples were selected manually from the data and used for training. To reduce complexity, the filter assumed that the underlying noise in the data was spatially white. The detector performed with an average TP and FP rate of 84.62% and 16.63% respectively. This high level of performance indicates the algorithm is suitable for widespread use. © 2014 IEEE.

Nie Q.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | Nie Q.,University of California at Irvine | Enciso G.,Center for Complex Biological Systems
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Multisite phosphorylation is a common form of posttranslational protein regulation which has been used to increase the switchlike behavior of the protein response to increasing kinase concentrations. In this letter, we show that the switchlike response of multisite phosphoproteins is strongly enhanced by nonessential phosphorylation sites, a mechanism that is robust to parameter changes and easily implemented in nature. We obtained analytic estimates for the Hill exponent (or coefficient) of the switchlike response, and we observed that a tradeoff exists between the switch and the kinase threshold for activation. This also suggests a possible evolutionary mechanism for the relatively large numbers of phosphorylation sites found in various proteins. © 2010 by the Biophysical Society.

Gord A.,Center for Mathematical and Computational Biology | Gord A.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | Holmes W.R.,Center for Mathematical and Computational Biology | Holmes W.R.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2014

Skin is a complex organ tasked with, among other functions, protecting the body from the outside world. Its outermost protective layer, the epidermis, is comprised of multiple cell layers that are derived from a single-layered ectoderm during development. Using a new stochastic, multi-scale computational modelling framework, the anisotropic subcellular element method, we investigate the role of cellmorphology and biophysical cell-cell interactions in the formation of this layered structure. This three-dimensional framework describes interactions between collections of hundreds to thousands of cells and (i) accounts for intracellular structure and morphology, (ii) easily incorporates complex cell-cell interactions and (iii) can be efficiently implemented on parallel architectures. We use this approach to construct a model of the developing epidermis that accounts for the internal polarity of ectodermal cells and their columnar morphology. Using this model, we show that cell detachment, which has been previously suggested to have a role in this process, leads to unpredictable, randomized stratification and that this cannot be abrogated by adjustment of cell-cell adhesion interaction strength. Polarized distribution of cell adhesion proteins, motivated by epithelial polarization, can however eliminate this detachment, and in conjunction with asymmetric cell division lead to robust and predictable development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Olivas N.D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Peng T.,Center for Complex Biological Systems | Holmes T.C.,University of California at Irvine | Nie Q.,Center for Complex Biological Systems
Journal of Physiology | Year: 2016

In the mammalian neocortex, excitatory neurons provide excitation in both columnar and laminar dimensions, which is modulated further by inhibitory neurons. However, our understanding of intracortical excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in relation to principal excitatory neurons remains incomplete, and it is unclear how local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections to excitatory neurons are spatially organized on a layer-by-layer basis. In the present study, we combined whole cell recordings with laser scanning photostimulation via glutamate uncaging to map excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to single excitatory neurons throughout cortical layers 2/3-6 in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). We find that synaptic input sources of excitatory neurons span the radial columns of laminar microcircuits, and excitatory neurons in different V1 laminae exhibit distinct patterns of layer-specific organization of excitatory inputs. Remarkably, the spatial extent of inhibitory inputs of excitatory neurons for a given layer closely mirrors that of their excitatory input sources, indicating that excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity is spatially balanced across excitatory neuronal networks. Strong interlaminar inhibitory inputs are found, particularly for excitatory neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. This differs from earlier studies reporting that inhibitory cortical connections to excitatory neurons are generally localized within the same cortical layer. On the basis of the functional mapping assays, we conducted a quantitative assessment of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic laminar connections to excitatory cells at single cell resolution, establishing precise layer-by-layer synaptic wiring diagrams of excitatory neurons in the visual cortex. © 2016 The Physiological Society.

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