Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
Marandi A.,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences |
Sadrizadeh B.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education |
Gouya M.M.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010
The National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) was established in Iran in 1982 and has made many important technical recommendations (e.g., regarding polio eradication, introduction of new vaccines, organizing special studies) that have contributed to a dramatic decline in vaccine preventable disease burden. The NITAG consists of experts from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME), vaccine manufacturers, and medical universities with national Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) staff serving as the secretariat. It is not completely independent from MOHME or EPI. It meets on a quarterly basis, and publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. Although primarily an advisory body, representation from MOHME members, including the EPI manager, ensures almost universal implementation of NITAG recommendations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
Eshrati B.,Arak University of Medical Sciences |
Asl H.M.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
Pezeshki Z.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2012
Background: Annually, around six million patients are admitted to hospitals in Iran. Information about the prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. This article is based on the findings of the Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NISS) which has been providing information on NIs in Iran since March 2007. Methods: NISS covers 95 hospitals throughout Iran, each with over 200 beds. There are four main infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), bloodstream infection (BSI) and pneumonia (PNEU) included in NISS. Reports are completed on forms that have been provided based on national guidelines. In all selected hospitals there is one designated nurse who conducts infection control activities and is trained in the detection and reporting of NIs based on NISS guidelines. Results: During March 2007 - March 2008, a total of 1,879,356 patients were admitted to the selected hospitals. The total detected NIs were 10557 with a prevalence of 0.57%. Of these, UTI was the most prevalent infection (32.2%) and BSI was the least (16.3%). Based on gender, females had more UTI, whereas PNEU was the highest in males. Of reported NIs, 9% were detected in children less than five years of age and included BSI (45%), PNEU (20%), SSI (19%) and UTI (16%). There were 26% reported NIs in the age group over 65 years, of which the most prevalent infections were UTI (42%) followed by PNEU (31%), SSI (15%) and BSI (12%). NIs were most often detected in intensive care units (ICUs; 26.7%), followed by surgery wards (12.8%). CONCLUSION: In comparison with other studies and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the rate of NIs appears to be less according to NISS. NISS has the capability to provide basic information for efficient management and control measures, in addition to indicating variations in NIs based on gender, age and location (hospital ward). In order to have a more realistic estimate of NIs and strengthen NISS, it is advisable to conduct a point prevalence study.
PubMed | World Health Organization, Center for Communicable Diseases Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Pasteur Institute of Iran
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit | Year: 2016
Leishmaniasis has a long history in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study aimed to show the trend in leishmaniasis incidence from 1983 to 2012 and to describe the epidemiological characteristics in 2012. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, data were extracted from th%e national leishmaniasis surveillance system for the 3 clinical types-cutaneous (zoonotic and anthroponotic) and visceral (zoonotic). The average annual number of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases was 18 884 (average annual incidence 32 cases per 100 000 inhabitants). In 2012 the highest incidences were in age groups 1-4 and 5-9-years (43 and 40 per 100 000), and more males (57%) than females (43%) were infected. The annual average number of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis cases was 175 (average annual incidence 0.18 per 100 000). The incidences of cutaneous and zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis have decreased in recent years, which coincides with national leishmaniasis control efforts.
Aryan E.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences |
Makvandi M.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences |
Farajzadeh A.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences |
Huygen K.,Scientific Institute of Public Health WIV ISP |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Infection | Year: 2013
Objectives: A fundamental to global tuberculosis (TB) control is timely and accurate diagnosis of infectious cases of the disease. Among various methods, techniques based on nucleic acid amplification are the ones with promising prospects. The present study evaluates the diagnostic value of the recently developed IS. 6110-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in sputum specimens. Methods: In this cross-sectional study (2008-2009), IS. 6110-LAMP was evaluated on 101 sputum specimens from 93 highly suspected TB patients and compared to Amplicor MTB test and in-house IS. 6110-PCR and -nested PCR assays. Culture results or clinical recovery following anti-TB therapy was considered as a reference to prove the TB cases. Results: The overall sensitivity of IS. 6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 89.6% (69/77 specimens; 95% confidence interval [CI], 80.5-95.4%), 76.6% (59/77 specimens; CI, 65.6-85.5%), 79.2% (61/77 specimens; CI, 68.5-87.6%) and 59.7% (46/77 specimens; CI, 47.9-70.8%). The specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 100% for all the tests, and the negative predictive value (NPV) of IS. 6110-LAMP, Amplicor, nPCR, and PCR were respectively 75%, 57.1%, 60%, and 43.6%. There was an excellent overall agreement between LAMP and nPCR (. k 0.828), and between LAMP and Amplicor (. k 0.746), in addition to a better tolerance of IS. 6110-LAMP to inhibitors present in clinical specimens. Conclusion: The better diagnostic performance of IS. 6110-LAMP compared to Amplicor (. p = 0.009), nPCR (p = 0.013) and PCR (. p < 0.0001) besides its rapidity, simplicity, and cost-effectiveness makes it a valuable method for the detection of MTBC in clinical samples, particularly in resource-limited settings. © 2013 The British Infection Association.
PubMed | Center for Communicable Diseases Control and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2016
In developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) infection control remains a challenge. The bacille Calmette-Gurin (BCG) vaccine is the only effective vaccine available for TB control. Iran uses a local BCG vaccine strain with an unknown substrain.To investigate the molecular characteristics of the current BCG strain being used in Iran using comparative genomics of the evolutionarily late strains, including BCG vaccines Pasteur, BCG-Danish, BCG-Glaxo, BCG-Prague, BCG-Frappier, BCG-Connaught and BCG-Moreau.A total of 67 different vials of BCG vaccine were cultured. DNA was extracted using the modified cetrimonium bromide (CTAB) method, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to determine four target genomic regions of difference (RD) 1, RD8, RD16 and SenX3-RegX3, and to see whether RD2 and RD14 were present.Our results showed that all studied batches were Mycobacterium bovis; molecular analysis revealed that the Iranian vaccine strains possess RD8, RD16 and SenX3-RegX3 regions but not RD1, RD2 and RD14. All of the vaccine batches analysed were compatible with BCG-Pasteur 1173p2, the original strain.All of the BCG strains studied were recognised as the BCG-Pasteur 1173p2 strain. No genetic diversity among stocks and ready-for-use vaccine vials were detected.
PubMed | Center for Communicable Diseases Control, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University at Tehran and University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences
Type: | Journal: International journal of preventive medicine | Year: 2016
HIV/AIDS is one of the diseases which not only makes threats to physical health, but also, due to the negative attitudes of people and the social stigma, affects the emotional and social health of patients. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological, social, and family problems of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Iran.In this qualitative study, we used purposive sampling to enroll PLWHA, their families, and physicians and consultants in two cities of Kermanshah and Tehran. Each group of PLWHA, their families, physicians, and consultants participated in two focus group discussions (FGDs), and a total of eight FGDs were conducted. Six interviews were held with all key people, individually.Based on the views and opinions of various groups involved in the study, the main problems of PLWHA were: Ostracism, depression, anxiety, a tendency to get revenge and lack of fear to infect others, frustration, social isolation, relationship problems, and fear due to the social stigma. Their psychological problems included: Marriage problems, family conflict, lack of family support, economic hardships inhibiting marriage, and social rejection of patients families. Their family problems were: Unemployment, the need for housing, basic needs, homelessness, and lack of social support associations.It seems that the identification and focusing on psychological, social, and family problems of affected people not only is an important factor for disease prevention and control, but also enables patients to have a better response to complications caused by HIV/AIDS.
PubMed | Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Center for Communicable Diseases Control and Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of infection control | Year: 2016
Globally, the health and economic burden posed by health care-associated infections (HAIs) remains wide and severe. To curb the burden associated with HAIs, countries, including Iran, aim at HAI prevention and control. This study explores the challenges faced by the Iranian health system in addressing the issues associated with the prevention and control of HAIs.A qualitative research method was adopted in exploring the phenomenon. We used the purposive sampling approach in reaching 24 key informants at the national and subnational levels. The thematic framework analysis was conducted for analyzing the interviews.Five main themes emerged from our study demonstrating the obstacles toward the prevention and control of HAIs. They include governance and stewardship, resources, safety culture, monitoring and surveillance systems, and inappropriate prescription of antibiotics.Strengthening of reporting and surveillance systems for HAIs coupled with proper governance and stewardship are crucial in order to improve the health and safety of patients. However, the availability of resources, through an intersectoral approach, is essential to achieve sustained output.
Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
Izadi S.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences |
Mokhtari-Azad T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2016
Within the past few years, several measles outbreaks have occurred in the southeast of Iran. To learn about the effectiveness of the immunization services for producing a serologic response against measles, this follow-up study was designed and implemented in the southeast of Iran. In Iran, all routine immunization services provided by the public sector are free of charge. The follow-up study was designed and implemented in 5 Urban Health Centers located in 3 districts of Sistan-va-BaluchestanProvince, Iran. In the pre-vaccination phase, 270 12-month-old babies were blood sampled; and in the post-vaccination phase, 4 to 7 weeks after Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) vaccination, 236 of them were blood sampled (34 dropouts), and their sera were tested for IgG anti-measles antibodies, using indirect ELISA, in the National Reference Measles Laboratory. Out of the 236 participants, who had been blood sampled in the post-vaccination phase, 10 (3.7%) were excluded from the calculations of seroconversion rate, because they had protective levels of antibody before the vaccination. The seroconversion rate for the remaining 226 participants was 91.2% (95% confidence interval: 86.7 to 94.5). Among the variables studied, stunting (height-for-age z-score < −2) showed a strong relationship with the remaining seronegative after the vaccination (odds ratio = 5.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.7–18.2). The chance of seroconversion was inversely related to the mothers' levels of education (up to 9 y of education vs. above nine years) (odds ratio = 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.06–0.4). In the study population, the seroconversion rates for anti-measles antibodies after MMR vaccination are acceptable, even though in order to achieve the elimination goal, higher standards need to be achieved. © 2016 Ministry of Health, I. R. Iran
Zamani S.,Kyoto University |
Radfar R.,Health and Culture Institute |
Nematollahi P.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences |
Fadaie R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences |
And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2010
Background: The control of blood-borne infections including HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) amongst injecting drug users (IDUs) is a challenge for health authorities in Iran. Hence, more reliable estimates of the levels of blood-borne infections and their associated factors are critically needed. Methods: Active IDUs were recruited using peer-driven sampling in a bio-behavioural survey in 2008. Over 8 weeks, data were collected from adults living in a city in Isfahan Province who had injected drugs in the past month. Participants provided a whole blood sample and answered questions on sexual and drug-related risk characteristics. Participants were provided post-test counselling and a non-monetary incentive for their participation. Excluding two inactive cases, the initial recruits resulted in 2-8 waves of recruitment. Results: Overall, 118 IDUs including three females participated. The estimated population proportions of HIV, hepatitis B, and HCV infections were 0.7% (95% CI, 0.6-2.3), 0.7% (95% CI, 0.1-2.1), and 59.4% (95% CI, 47.4-68.7), respectively. Responses indicated that 31% (95% CI, 20-44.5) of the IDUs ever shared a needle/syringe for drug injection, and 77% (95% CI, 65-84) had ever injected an addictive solution marketed widely as Temgesic. Multivariate analyses revealed that the high prevalence of HCV infection amongst IDUs is associated with the lifetime duration of drug injection (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) and with having injected Temgesic (AOR, 4.73; 95% CI, 1.52-14.69). Conclusion: Our experience in Iran indicates that IDUs can be recruited effectively in a bio-behavioural survey through peer-driven sampling and using only a single primary incentive. The high prevalence of HCV associated with injecting Temgesic is important evidence for harm-reduction policies in Iran. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Rajabi M.,Lund University |
Pilesjo P.,Lund University |
Shirzadi M.R.,Center for Communicable Diseases Control |
Fadaei R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences |
Mansourian A.,Lund University
Environmental Modelling and Software | Year: 2016
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic vector-borne disease in the Middle East and a worldwide public health problem. The spread of CL is highly associated with the socio-ecological interactions of vectors, hosts and the environment. The heterogeneity of these interactions has hindered CL modeling for healthcare preventive measures in endemic areas. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is developed to simulate the dynamics of CL spread based on a Geographic Automata System (GAS). A Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) approach together with Bayesian modeling has been applied in the ABM to explore the spread of CL. The model is then adapted locally for Isfahan Province, an endemic area in central Iran. The results from the model indicate that desertification areas are the main origin of CL, and riverside population centers have the potential to host more sand fly exposures and should receive more preventive measures from healthcare authorities. The results also show that healthcare service accessibility prevented exposures from becoming infected and areas with new inhabitants experienced more infections from same amount of sand fly exposures. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.