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Rahbar M.,Iranian Reference Health Laboratory | Mohammad-Zadeh M.,Milad Hospital | Asl H.M.,Center for Communicable Disease Control | Azimi L.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Lari A.R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
HealthMED | Year: 2012

Background and objectives: Clindamycin is an antibiotic which usually can be used for treatment of infection of skin and soft tissue infection caused by staphylococci. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance among coagulase-negative staphylococci that were isolated in Iranian 1000-bed tertiary care hospital. Methods: A total of 114 strains of coagulasenegative staphylococci were isolated from clinical specimens. All isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Inducible clindamycin resistance was performed by double disk diffusion method as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of 114 isolates coaagulase -negative staphylococci, 107(93.8%) strains were isolated from blood cultures. Of the 114 CoNS isolates 61(53.50%) were resistant to both erythromycin and clindamycin. 10 (8.77%) isolates were resistant to erythromycin but susceptible to clindamycin. Of 114 CoNS 32 (28.07%) isolates were susceptible to both erythromycin and clindamycin. The rate of inducible clindamycin resistance was 9.64%. All inducible clindamycin were methicillin resistant. Conclusion: Resistance to antimicrobial agents such as macrolides might not be readily apparent by routine testing. It is recommended to implement of the D-test or the Disk induction test as a simple, practical method with routine antibiotic susceptibility testing, for detection inducible and constitutive clindamycin resistance among staphylococci isolates. Source


Izadi S.,Zahedan University of Medical Sciences | Shahmahmoodi S.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Disease Control | Dorostkar F.,Ministry of Health and Medical Education | Majdzadeh R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2014

Movements of populations from countries where polio has not been eradicated is a concern in the Islamic Republic of Iran. A cross-sectional, community-based study was implemented in 2010 in 2 districts in Sistan-va-Baluchestan Province near the south-east border. The aim was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies in children aged 20 (± 2) months who had received at least 5 doses of trivalent oral polio vaccine. Using cluster sampling, 365 children were enrolled for serological testing. Antibody titres ≥ 1:10 were considered positive. Seropositive rates for antibody against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were 94.1%, 96.7% and 78.3% respectively. The lowest seropositive rate was for antibody against polio serotype 3 (PV3) among boys (58.3%). Exclusive breastfeeding showed a direct relationship with antibody response to PV3 (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Improving community protection against PV3 is an urgent programme priority. Source


Rejali M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Mohammadbeigi A.,Qom University of Medical Sciences | Mokhtari M.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Disease Control | Eshrati B.,Arak University of Medical Sciences
Journal of Research in Health Sciences | Year: 2015

Background: Most studies evaluated the vaccine coverage, but the time of vaccination is important as coverage. This study was conducted to evaluate the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in outskirt of Iranian cities regarding to incidence of delayed vaccination among children less than 4 years. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among children 24-47 months old, living in the suburbs of five metropolises of Iran. Totally, 3610 eligible children selected with proportioned cluster sampling method and data of vaccination card extracted after the interview with children's parents. Delayed incidence rate reported and predictive factors assessed by the Chi square test and Multivariate logistic regression. Results: Overall, 56.6% to 93.2% vaccines were administered out of time. Delayed vaccination incidence with more than one-week delay varies from 5.5% to 74.9% of polio at birth and MMR2 at 18 months, respectively. Mother’s educational level and birth order were the most important predictors of delayed vaccination. Incidence of delayed vaccination was enlarged by increasing birth order and decreased in lower educated mothers. Conclusions: Incidence rate of delayed vaccination is more than expectation. Regarding to high coverage vaccines in Iran, health officers and health policy makers should attempt for ontime vaccination beside of high immunization coverage, especially in slum areas with more concentrated immigrants due to low literature and crowded families. © 2015 Health Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. Source


Fateh M.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Emamian M.H.,Shahroud University of Medical Sciences | Zahraei S.M.,Center for Communicable Disease Control | Fotouhi A.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Auto-Disable syringes are recommended for immunization because of their greater safety and preventing reuse. In this study, the role of the syringe and needle gauge on the adverse events following Diphtheria, Tetanus toxoids and whole-cell Pertussis immunization was studied. Methods: In this study, 1000 children from 2 months to 6 years of age, eligible for Diphtheria, Tetanus toxoids and whole-cell Pertussis immunization and who referred to 4 health centers, were randomized into 2 groups of regular syringe users (the Auto-Disable syringe with a 23 gauge and 25 mm needle) and new syringe users (the disposable syringe with a 24 gauge and 25 mm needle). Adverse events following immunization were evaluated on days 2, 4 and 6 after immunization by visiting the children at their home and examining them. Results: The occurrence of the primary endpoint (severe local reaction) was found to be 2.1% in all the children, 2.0% in the children vaccinated with the Auto-Disable syringe and 2.2% in the children vaccinated with the new syringe. This difference is not significant (P = 0.818). The evaluation of other milder adverse events (secondary endpoints) showed that the syringe type has no effect on the occurrence of these adverse events. Conclusions: Syringe types and needle diameter played no role in precipitating the adverse events following immunization of the Diphtheria, Tetanus toxoids and whole-cell Pertussis vaccine. Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Shahcheraghi F.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Nobari S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Asl H.M.,Center for Communicable Disease Control | Aslani M.M.,Pasteur Institute of Iran
Archives of Iranian Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Botulism is a serious neuroparalytic disease caused by toxins of Clostridium botulinum. Botulinum toxin is produced under anaerobic conditions and it is the most dangerous toxin in the world. Rapid diagnosis of botulism is very essential for successful therapy. In this study, we reviewed data of cases of botulism in Iran from April 2004 through March 2010. Materials and Methods: From a total of 1140 samples of suspected botulism samples, 477 serum, 294 stool, 111 gastric secretions, and 258 food samples were collected from 21 provinces. These samples belonged to 432 distinct patients. All samples were tested for botulism by mouse bioassay, a gold standard method for detection of botulism. Results: From 1140 received samples, 64 (5.6 %) positive samples of botulism were identified. Of these, 14 (21.8 %) cases had toxin type A, seven (11 %) cases had toxin type B, 22 (34.3 %) cases had toxin type E, and seven (11 %) cases had toxin type AB. The toxin type could not been identified in 14 (21.8 %) cases. The highest positive results were in Gilan, Tehran, Golestan, and Hamedan provinces. Seafoods and locally- made cheese were the most implicated foods in type E and type A botulism, respectively. Conclusion: Accurate and rapid diagnosis of botulism is very important because every case of botulism can be a public health emergency. During the study period, the median number of positive cases per year was 2.7 (range: one to18). Therefore, it is suggested that all clinicians are required to submit the collected samples from patients with botulism symptoms to the botulism reference laboratory for specific diagnosis and confirmation of botulism. Source

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