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Whalley L.J.,University of Aberdeen | Murray A.D.,University of Aberdeen | Staff R.T.,Royal Infirmary | Starr J.M.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | And 7 more authors.
Maturitas | Year: 2011

Objectives: To describe the discovery and development of the Aberdeen 1921 and 1936 birth cohort studies. Study Design: The Aberdeen birth cohort studies were started in 1998 when the Scottish Mental Survey archives of the Scottish Council for Research in Education were re-discovered and permissions granted to follow-up survivors born in 1921 or 1936 and then aged about 77 or 64 years and who had entered (or were about to enter) the age of greatest risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Main outcome measures: Sources of attrition from the study, exposures to childhood adversity, nutritional, genetic and life style factors of possible relevance to extent of age-related cognitive decline and the timing of onset of dementia. Results: By 2010, the feasibility of following up more than 75% of Scottish Mental Survey survivors living in the Aberdeen area without dementia was well-established, dementia ascertainment to age about 88 years was completed in the 1921 birth cohort and was underway in the 1936 born cohort. Conclusion: These databases are available to other bone fide research groups wishing to test specific hypotheses that may either replicate their own findings or make best use of the data collected in the Aberdeen studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Scotland J.L.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Whittle I.R.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Deary I.J.,University of Edinburgh
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2012

Quantifying the extent of cognitive dysfunction in patients with intracranial tumors is important to monitor treatment effects and assess patients needs. Inspection time, a measure of the efficiency of visual information processing, was evaluated, and its usefulness in patients with intracranial tumors was compared with that of other widely used cognitive tests. Newly presenting inpatients with supratentorial intracranial tumors (n 118) underwent preoperative assessment using inspection time and a number of other measures of cognitive function, mood, and functional status. The brain tumor cohort was compared with patients admitted for elective spinal surgery (n 85) and a healthy control group (n 80). Analysis of covariance was used to compare the performance of the 3 groups. The brain tumor cohort had significantly lower inspection time scores than the spinal surgery group (P =. 005) and the healthy volunteer control group (P <. 001). The effect size was moderate. There was a large effect size of participant group for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol-Coding, and Verbal Fluency (P = . 002). The performance of patients with brain tumors was significantly worse than that of both of the control groups. Inspection time was well-tolerated by patients with intracranial tumors. However, inspection time is neither as easy to perform nor as sensitive as some other measures of cognitive function. Although its lack of any motor speed or coordination requirements, conceptual simplicity, repeatability, and relative lack of learning effect make inspection time a potentially useful tool in clinical neuro-oncology, practical considerations will limit its use. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Zammit A.R.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Zammit A.R.,Yeshiva University | Starr J.M.,University of Edinburgh | Johnson W.,University of Edinburgh | Deary I.J.,University of Edinburgh
BMC Geriatrics | Year: 2014

Background: Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods. The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables - none of which were used in the LCA - were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results: We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion: The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. © 2014 Zammit et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Elamin M.,University of Edinburgh | Holloway G.,University of Edinburgh | Bak T.H.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Pal S.,University of Edinburgh
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | Year: 2016

Background/Aims: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as functionally relevant cognitive decline with age of onset at less than 65 years. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the recently validated third version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE-III) in predicting dementia diagnoses in EOD. Methods: ACE-III scores of EOD patients were compared to those of healthy controls (HC) and individuals with subjective memory impairment (SMI). Results: The study included 71 EOD patients (Alzheimer's disease, n = 31; primary progressive aphasia, n = 11; behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, n = 18, and posterior cortical atrophy, n = 11); there were 28 HC and 15 individuals with SMI. At a cut-off score of 88/100, the ACE-III displayed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing EOD from HC (91.5 and 96.4%) and SMI (91.5 and 86.7%). Conclusions: The ACE-III is a reliable cognitive screening tool in EOD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Hagger-Johnson G.E.,University College London | Shickle D.A.,University of Leeds | Roberts B.A.,Center for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology | Roberts B.A.,University of Edinburgh | And 2 more authors.
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2012

Objective. Among adults, slower and more variable reaction times are associated with worse cognitive function and increased mortality risk. Therefore, it is important to elucidate risk factors for reaction time change over the life course. Method. Data from the Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) were used to examine predictors of 7-year decline in reaction time (N = 4,260). Regression-derived factor scores were used to summarize general change across 4 reaction time variables: simple mean, 4-choice mean, simple variability, and 4-choice variability (53.52% of variance).Results. Age (B =. 02, p <. 001) and HALS1 baseline reaction time (B =-.10, p =. 001) were significant risk factors for males (N = 1,899). In addition to these variables, in females (N = 2,361), neuroticism was significant and interacted synergistically with baseline reaction time (B =. 06, p =. 04). Adjustment for physiological variables explained the interaction with neuroticism, suggesting that candidate mechanisms had been identified. Discussion. A priority for future research is to replicate interactions between personality and reaction time in other samples and find specific mechanisms. Stratification of population data on cognitive health by personality and reaction time could improve strategies for identifying those at greater risk of cognitive decline. © 2012 The Author. Source

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