Center for Cognition and Communication

New York City, New York, United States

Center for Cognition and Communication

New York City, New York, United States
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Trystula M.,John Paul II Hospital | Zychowska M.,University of Gdansk | Wilk-Franczuk M.,Cracow Rehabilitation and Orthopedics Center | Kropotov J.D.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to evaluate dysregulation of gene expression associated with the cellular stress response in a patient with a post-“warning stroke” depressive disorder confirmed by the presence of a neurophysiological neuromarker through the use of quantitative EEG and event-related potentials. The patient was tested for seven genes associated with the stress reaction: HSPA1A, HSPB1, IL6, IL10, CRP, and HSF-1 along with NF-κB, compared to gene expression in health controls. A 54-year-old patient with a past history of schizophrenia (at the age of 20), and of transient ischemic attack (at the age of 53) and depressive disorder confirmed by functional, cognitive, emotional, and affectional diagnostics underwent additional testing for expression of the genes associated with stress response. The expression of genes coding for heat shock protein (HSPA1A, HSPB1), interleukins (IL6, IL10), and C-reactive protein was tested along with factors that regulate their expression. The results of the tests conducted on this patient were compared with 42 healthy control subjects. Diagnostic testing revealed upregulation in expression of these genes, presenting as increased expression of the target genes and of the regulatory genes. A post-“warning stroke” depressive disorder appears to be associated with overexpression of the genes coding for HSP and interleukins. Further research on larger groups of people may provide grounds for treatment modification. © 2017 The Authors.


Chantsoulis M.,Academy of Physical Education in Katowice | Rasmus A.,Kazimierz Wielki University in Bydgoszcz | Kropotov J.D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2015

The aim of this review is to discuss the basic forms of neuropsychological rehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). More broadly, we discussed cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) which constitutes a fundamental component in therapeutic interaction at many centres worldwide. Equally presented is a comprehensive model of rehabilitation, the fundamental component of which is CRT. It should be noted that the principles of this approach first arose in Poland in the 1970s, in other words, several decades before their appearance in other programmemes. Taken into consideration are four factors conditioning the effectiveness of such a process: comprehensiveness, earlier interaction, universality and its individualized character. A comprehensive programmeme of rehabilitation covers: cognitive rehabilitation, individual and group rehabilitation with the application of a therapeutic environment, specialist vocational rehabilitation, as well as family psychotherapy. These training programmemes are conducted within the scope of the ‘Academy of Life,’ which provides support for the patients in their efforts and shows them the means by which they can overcome existing difficulties. Equally emphasized is the close cooperation of the whole team of specialists, as well as the active participation of the family as an essential condition for the effectiveness of rehabilitation and, in effect, a return of the patient to a relatively normal life. Also presented are newly developing neurothechnologies and the neuromarkers of brain injuries. This enables a correct diagnosis to be made and, as a result, the selection of appropriate methods for neuropsychological rehabilitation, including neurotherapy. © 2015, Institute of Agricultural Medicine. All rights reserved.


Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication | Bidzan L.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Bidzan M.,University of Gdansk | Goral-Polrola J.,Old Polish University
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2015

Background: The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of vascular factors on the degree of intensity and rate of progression of cognitive disorders in the course of Alzheimer Disease (AD). Material/Methods: The research group consisted of 39 persons, all of whom were diagnosed with AD according to the NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. We divided these patients into 2 subgroups, based on the vascular factors measured by the modified Hachinski Ischemic Scale (Ha-mod): group A, without the vascular component (HA-mod score of 0–1 point), and group B, with the vascular component (a score over 1 point). Cognitive functions were evaluated at baseline and again 2 years later, using the Cognitive Part of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog). Results: We found that the patients from subgroup B, with the stronger vascular component, demonstrated the highest intensity of cognitive disorders at baseline, both in terms of the overall ADAS-cog score, and in the subscores for ideational praxis, orientation, spoken language ability, comprehension of spoken language, and word-finding difficulty in spontaneous speech. Another variable which was connected with the intensity of dementia was age. After 2 years, however, the rate of progression of cognitive disorders was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Conclusions: The severity of vascular factors correlates directly with the intensity of cognitive disturbances. At the 2-year follow-up examination, however, no correlation was observed in the research group between greater vascular involvement and more rapid progression of cognitive disorders, as measured by the ADAS-cog scale. © Med Sci Monit, 2015.


Bidzan L.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Bidzan M.,University of Gdansk | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2016

Background: Our goal was to specify the relationship between the level of activity (intellectual, physical, and social) in persons diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the further progression of cognitive dysfunction. Material/Methods: We examined 193 patients diagnosed with MCI (according to the criteria of the Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment) and under treatment at our Mental Disorders Clinic. It was assumed that these persons would remain under systematic psychiatric observation until dementia was diagnosed. The present study results from a seven-year observation period. The mini–mental state examination (MMSE), the Activity Scale (with the intellectual, physical, and social subscales), and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale were used to evaluate the participants’ status at baseline. The MMSE was re-administered after one year and again at the end of the observation (either upon diagnosis of dementia or after seven years). At each meeting with the participant, the clinical diagnosis was verified to determine if the patient had dementia or not. Of the 193 people initially qualified for the study, 75 were available for the final analysis. Results: It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in the baseline MMSE scores between the persons with stable MCI and the persons who had progressed to dementia. However, statistically significant differences in the level of activity at baseline on both the global IADL scale and the Activity Scale between those with stable MCI and those who had progressed to dementia were found. These differences were manifested in the IADL subscales for telephone use, shopping, transportation, and personal finances, and in the physical activity subscale. Conclusions: An evaluation of intellectual, physical, and social activity can be useful in determining the prognosis for the future course of MCI. © Med Sci Monit.


Bidzan M.,University of Gdansk | Bidzan L.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication
Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective. Vascular changes are observed in most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Observations of AD and vascular disease (VD) allow us to surmise that vascular changes may not only affect cognitive impairment in AD but may also have a negative influence on the neuropsychiatric symptoms which often occur in the course of the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of vascular factors on the neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease. Material and methods. The study included 48 people with a preliminary diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The evaluation of impairments in cognitive functioning was carried out by means of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - the cognitive part (ADAS - cog), whereas the behavioural and psychological symptoms were evaluated by means of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory - the version adapted for residents of nursing homes for the elderly (Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Nursing Home Version) (NPI - NH). The score on the Hachinski scale was the basis for dividing the study participants into two groups - those with a mild vascular component (0-1 points on the Hachinski scale) and those with a severe vascular component (2-4 points). Results. The analyzed groups did not differ with respect to the intensity of cognitive impairments (ADAS-cog) or age of the participants. Scores obtained on the NPI - NH scale as well as some of its elements (depression/dysphoria and anxiety) had a discriminating value. Studies show that vascular factors are a serious risk factor for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD. Conclusions. Vascular factors in Alzheimer's Disease influence the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the course of angiogenic dementia a greater frequency in depressive disorders was shown. The most visible differences between individuals with a greater and lesser burden of vascular factors was in the realm of depressive and dysphoric disorders.


Pachalska M.,Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication | Lukowicz M.,Nicolaus Copernicus University | Kropotov J.D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2011

Background: This article examines the effectiveness of differentiated rehabilitation programs for a patient with frontal syndrome after severe TBI and long-term coma. We hypothesized that there would be a small response to relative beta training, and a good response to rTMS, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function. Case Report: M. L-S, age 26, suffered from anosognosia, executive dysfunction, and behavioral changes, after a skiing accident and prolonged coma, rendering him unable to function independently in many situations of everyday life. Only slight progress was made after traditional rehabilitation. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training (program A) and later in 20 sessions of rTMS (program B); both programs were combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment, after the completion of program A, and again after the completion of program B. As hypothesized, patient M.L-S showed small improvements in executive dysfunction and behavioral disorders after the conclusion of program A, and major improvement after program B. Similarly, in physiological changes the patient showed small improvement after relative beta training and a significant improvement of the P300 NOGO component after the rTMS program. Conclusions: The rTMS program produced larger physiological and behavioral changes than did relative beta training. A combination of different neurotherapeutical approaches (such as neurofeedback, rTMS, tDCS) can be suggested for similar severe cases of TBI. ERPs can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs. © Med Sci Monit.


Bidzan L.,Medical University of Gdańsk | Bidzan M.,University of Gdansk | Pachalska M.,Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2012

Background: The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are numerous, including worsening of mood, psychotic symptoms, aggressive and impulsive behaviours, and many others. It is generally assumed that there exists a relationship between the severity of dementia and aggressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between aggressive and impulsive behaviours and cognitive function disorders in AD patients. Material/Methods: Forty-eight AD patients living in a nursing home were included in the research group on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The subjects underwent two years of naturalistic observation. The intensity of agitation and aggressive behaviours was assessed on the basis of the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI). The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale Cog (ADAS-cog) was used to assess cognitive function. Pharmacotherapy administered during the observation period was also taken into account. Results: Thirty-one patients completed the two year long observation. Individuals with more severe cognitive deficiencies demonstrated a greater intensity of aggressive and impulsive behaviours, as assessed using the CMAI scale. Aggression escalated together with the development of dementia disorders. The intensity of dementia disorders was most significantly connected with physical agitation and verbal aggression. The use of neuroleptics and mood stabilisers decreased the progression of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Conclusions: There is a relationship between cognitive functioning disorders and the intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours. More severe forms of dementia are connected with greater intensification of aggressive and impulsive behaviours as the disease progresses. Periodical administration of pharmacotherapy may reduce the development of aggressive behaviours. © Med Sci Monit.


Pachalska M.,Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication | Manko G.,Jagiellonian University | Manko G.,Health Science University | And 5 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2012

Background: The aim of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the phased rehabilitation program in patients after traumatic brain injury, one developed by the authors and controlled by the strategic plan, pertaining to their quality of life compared to patients treated according to a standard, phased rehabilitation program. Material/Methods: The study included 40 patients of post traumatic brain injury treated at the Rehabilitation Clinic of the L. Rydygier Academy of Medical Sciences in Bydgoszcz and the Department of Medical Rehabilitation of the Cracow Rehabilitation Centre. An experimental group included 20 patients rehabilitated by a strategic approach and a control group consisted of 20 patients treated before the introduction of this approach. In assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation, a structured interview was used with clinical observation and the Battery of Quality of Life Assessment. The study was conducted twice: before and after eight weeks of rehabilitation. Results: The quality of life of people after brain injury is affected by self-service difficulties, difficulties in meeting the physiological needs and loss of psychophysical comfort, decreased mobility, impaired cognitive functions and executive and social functions. There is no consistency between the stated (subjective) level of quality of life of the patient, and the depth of objectively measured disability resulting from the injury sustained. Conclusions: A rehabilitation program controlled by a strategic plan, in collaboration with the patient treated subjectively is more effective in improving the quality of life, since the cooperating patient is more motivated to carry out individually designed goals. A rehabilitation program based on a strategic plan is worthy of recommendation for the treatment and improvement of patients after cranio-cerebral trauma. © Med Sci Monit.


Pachalska M.,Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication | Ledwoch B.,Maria Curie Sklodowska University | Moskala M.,Jagiellonian University | And 4 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2012

Background:The aim of present article is to compare patients with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex and prison inmates in terms of social intelligence and social intelligence monitoring. In addition, personal principles and emotional regulation of behavior will be assessed in both groups. Material/Methods: 20 patients with orbitofrontal cortical injury, 20 prisoners and 20 controls answered questions fromthe Social Interactions Assessment Questionnaire. Then they evaluated their self disclosure, reported their emotions related to self disclosure and declared their personal principles concerning conversations with strangers. Results: The patients with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex disclosed themselves to a stranger less appropriately than did other subjects, and did not assess it critically. They also violated their own declared principles, but did not feel embarrassed because of that. The prison inmates spoke out less forthrightly on many topics and felt confused during the whole examination. Conclusions: Damage to the the orbital part of frontal lobes may result in a disorder of self-disclosure monitoring and impairment of social intelligence in conversations with unknown persons. Prison inmates give information about themselves unwillingly, which may result from their specific experiences during criminal and judicatory procedures and confinement. © Med Sci Monit.


Pachalska M.,Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Cracow University | Pachalska M.,Center for Cognition and Communication | Kropotov I.D.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Manko G.,Jagiellonian University | And 6 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2012

Background: We hypothesized that there would be a good response to relative beta training, applied to regulate the dynamics of brain function in a patient with benign partial epilepsy with Rolandic Spikes (BPERS), associated with neuropsychiatric deficits resembling the symptoms of attention deficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Case Report: The patient, E.Z., age 9.3, was suffering from neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, especially attention deficits, and behavioral changes, rendering him unable to function independently in school and in many situations of everyday life. He was treated for epilepsy, but only slight progress was made. The patient took part in 20 sessions of relative beta training combined with behavioral training. We used standardized neuropsychological testing, as well as ERPs before the experiment and after the completion of the neurotherapy program. Neuropsychological testing at baseline showed multiple cognitive deficits. Over the course of neurotherapy, E.Z.'s verbal and non-verbal IQ increased significantly. His cognitive functions also improved, including immediate and delayed logical and visual recall on the WMS-III, maintaining attention on the WMS-III, and executive functions, but remained below norms. Physiologically, the patient showed substantial changes after neurotherapy, including fewer spikes and an increased P300 NOGO component. Conclusions: The cognitive deficits characteristic for ADHD in a child with BPERS may be unresponsive to antiepileptic treatment, but are reversible after a carefully selected neurotherapy program, combined with antiepileptic treatment. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the GO/NOGO task can be used to assess functional brain changes induced by neurotherapeutical programs. © Med Sci Monit.

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