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Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia

Hazirah A.R.,University Putra Malaysia | Zainal B.,Center for Cocoa Biotechnology Research | Abdah M.A.,University Putra Malaysia
Malaysian Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources have been actively investigated over the years to seek prevention against cancer. In this study, cocoa polyphenols extract (CPE) was examined to explore its antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methods: CPE was analysed for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP ferric-reducing antioxidant power assays). In vitro cytotoxicity effect of CPE against HepG2, HT-29, HeLa, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and WRL-68 cell lines after 48 h exposure was measured by MTT assay. Results: The study showed that CPE had higher total phenolic content (13560.0±420.1 mg GAE/100g dry weight of sample) than vitamin E (p<0.05). CPE exhibited strong antioxidant activity comparable with ascorbic acid in both DPPH (IC50 = 14.73±1.47 μg/ml) and FRAP (2130.33±2.33 μM of FE/1 mg of dry weight of sample). The cytotoxicity study showed that CPE exhibited the highest cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 with lowest IC50 value (3.00±0.29 mg/ml) compared to other cancer cell lines after 48 h treatment (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that CPE demonstrated high total phenolic content, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing ability and cytotoxicity activity towards HepG2, HT-29, HeLa, A549, MDA-MB- 231 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Further isolation of bioactive constituents from CPE should be done to characterise its potential chemopreventive activity as well as to elucidate the mechanism of cancer cell death induced by CPE. Source

Baharum Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharum Z.,Cocoa Innovation and Technology Center | Md Akim A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hin T.Y.Y.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Tropical Life Sciences Research | Year: 2016

Plants have been a good source of therapeutic agents for thousands of years; an impressive number of modern drugs used for treating human diseases are derived from natural sources. The Theobroma cacao tree, or cocoa, has recently garnered increasing attention and become the subject of research due to its antioxidant properties, which are related to potential anti-cancer effects. In the past few years, identifying and developing active compounds or extracts from the cocoa bean that might exert anti-cancer effects have become an important area of health- and biomedicine-related research. This review provides an updated overview of T. cacao in terms of its potential anti-cancer compounds and their extraction, in vitro bioassay, purification, and identification. This article also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques described and reviews the processes for future perspectives of analytical methods from the viewpoint of anti-cancer compound discovery. © Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2016. Source

Baharum Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Baharum Z.,Center for Cocoa Biotechnology Research | Akim A.M.,University Putra Malaysia | Taufiq-Yap Y.H.,University Putra Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2014

The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3 ± 7.0 μg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 41.4 ± 3.3 μg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. Source

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