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Nanaimo, Canada

Stephen C.,University of Calgary | Stephen C.,Center for Coastal Health | Ninghui L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yeh F.,University of Alberta | Zhang L.,Chinese Academy of Sciences
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2011

Animal health policy for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) must, for the time being, be based on expert opinion and shared international experience. We used the intellectual capital and knowledge of experienced Chinese and Canadian practitioners and policy makers to inform policy options for China and find shared policy elements applicable to both countries. No peer-reviewed comprehensive evaluations or systematic regulatory impact assessments of animal health policies were found. Sixteen guiding policy principles emerged from our thematic analysis of Chinese and Canadian policies. We provide a list of shared policy goals, targets and elements for HPAI preparedness, response and recovery. Policy elements clustered in a manner consistent with core public health competencies. Complex situations like HPAI require complex and adaptive policies, yet policies that cross jurisdictions and are fully integrated across agencies are rare. We encourage countries to develop or deploy capacity to undertake and publish regulatory impact assessments and policy evaluation to identify policy needs and provide a basis for evidence-based policy development. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Stephen C.,Center for Coastal Health | Stephen C.,University of Calgary | Karesh W.B.,Ecohealth Alliance | Karesh W.B.,University Paris Est Creteil | Karesh W.B.,Wildlife Health Specialist Group
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2014

The One Health concept is responsible for a shift towards practices, policies and partnerships that better link the health of people, animals and our shared environments. The papers in this issue of the World Organisation for Animal Health Scientific and Technical Review illustrate a myriad of ways in which a One Health approach could advance or has already advanced human and animal well-being. Independently, the authors conducted their own thematic analysis of One Health activities and found strong support for the notion that One Health has inspired a renaissance in veterinary public health, increased our basic knowledge of the mechanisms and natural history of many animal diseases, promoted systems approaches to health issues and encouraged stronger cross-sectoral collaboration. Unfortunately, many collaborations often end when funding ends and many remain distinct partnerships. One Health still suffers from a lack of strong environmental stakeholders and has mostly worked on infectious disease rather than addressing many of the pressing determinants of health that will confront us in the next century. There is no shared conception of health across veterinary, medical and environment sectors, and this is an issue that must be confronted if there are to be programmes that are truly integrated across people, animals and the environment.

Stephen C.,Center for Coastal Health | Stephen C.,University of Calgary
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2014

There has been, to date, little discussion about the defining features and measures of wildlife health in the literature or legislation. Much wildlife health work focuses on the detection and response to infectious or parasitic diseases; this perspective has been reinforced by the focus of the One Health initiative on wildlife as sources of emerging infections. The definition of health as "the absence of disease" lags 70 yr behind modern concepts of human health and emerging concepts of wildlife health in terms of vulnerability, resilience, and sustainability. Policies, programs, and research that focus on the integration of wildlife health with natural resource conservation, ecosystem restoration, and public health need a working definition of health that recognizes the major threats to fish and wildlife are the result of many other drivers besides pathogens and parasites, including habitat loss, globalization of trade, land-use pressure, and climate change. A modern definition of wildlife health should emphasize that 1) health is the result of interacting biologic, social, and environmental determinants that interact to affect capacity to cope with change; 2) health cannot be measured solely by what is absent but rather by characteristics of the animals and their ecosystem that affect their vulnerability and resilience; and 3) wildlife health is not a biologic state but rather a dynamic social construct based on human expectations and knowledge. © Wildlife Disease Association 2014.

Anholt R.M.,University of Calgary | Stephen C.,University of Calgary | Stephen C.,Center for Coastal Health | Copes R.,Public Health England
Zoonoses and Public Health | Year: 2012

The integration of the veterinary, medical and environmental sciences necessary to predict, prevent or respond to emerging zoonotic diseases requires effective collaboration and exchange of knowledge across these disciplines. There has been no research into how to connect and integrate these professions in the pursuit of a common task. We conducted a literature search looking at the experiences and wisdom resulting from collaborations built in health partnerships, health research knowledge transfer and exchange, business knowledge management and systems design engineering to identify key attributes of successful interdisciplinary (ID) collaboration. This was followed by a workshop with 16 experts experienced in ID collaboration including physicians, veterinarians and biologists from private practice, academia and government agencies. The workshop participants shared their perspectives on the facilitators and barriers to ID collaboration. Our results found that the elements that can support or impede ID collaboration can be categorized as follows: the characteristics of the people, the degree to which the task is a shared goal, the policies, practices and resources of the workplace, how information technology is used and the evaluation of the results. Above all, personal relationships built on trust and respect are needed to best assemble the disciplinary strength of the professions. The challenge of meeting collaborators outside the boundaries of one's discipline or jurisdiction may be met by an independent third party, an ID knowledge broker. The broker would know where the knowledge could be found, would facilitate introductions and would help to build effective ID teams. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Anholt R.M.,University of Calgary | Berezowski J.,University of Bern | MacLean K.,Business Infusions | Russell M.L.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

Companion animals closely share their domestic environment with people and have the potential to, act as sources of zoonotic diseases. They also have the potential to be sentinels of infectious and noninfectious, diseases. With the exception of rabies, there has been minimal ongoing surveillance of, companion animals in Canada. We developed customized data extraction software, the University of, Calgary Data Extraction Program (UCDEP), to automatically extract and warehouse the electronic, medical records (EMR) from participating private veterinary practices to make them available for, disease surveillance and knowledge creation for evidence-based practice. It was not possible to build, generic data extraction software; the UCDEP required customization to meet the specific software, capabilities of the veterinary practices. The UCDEP, tailored to the participating veterinary practices', management software, was capable of extracting data from the EMR with greater than 99%, completeness and accuracy. The experiences of the people developing and using the UCDEP and the, quality of the extracted data were evaluated. The electronic medical record data stored in the data, warehouse may be a valuable resource for surveillance and evidence-based medical research. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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