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Lind M.,Center for Clinical Veterinary Medicine | Lind M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Sipka A.S.,Cornell University | Schuberth H.-J.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | And 12 more authors.
Innate Immunity | Year: 2015

The distal compartments of the udder are the first to interact with invading pathogens. The regulatory and effector functions of two major teat regions [Fürstenberg's rosette (FR); teat cistern (TC)] are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to establish an in vitro model with explants of the FR and the TC to analyse their response towards Escherichia coli LPS and Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA). Quantitative stereological analysis confirmed differences in the cellular composition of FR and TC explants. Chemokine (CXCL8, CCL5, CCL20) and TNF-α mRNA were expressed at low levels in both locations. Explant stimulation with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of all tested chemokines and TNF-α. Stimulation with LTA only induced CCL20 and CXCL8. LPS- and LTA-stimulated explant supernatants contained CXCL8 and CXCL3. Supernatants significantly attracted neutrophils in vitro. Compared with TC, the FR showed high constitutive mRNA expression of S100 proteins (A8, A9, A12). In the TC, both LPS and LTA significantly induced S100A8, whereas S100A9 and S100A12 expression was only induced by LPS. The novel model system underpins the role of the teat for recognising pathogens and shaping a pathogen- and location-specific immune response. © The Author(s) 2014.


Renner S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Renner S.,Helmholtz Center Munich | Dobenecker B.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Blutke A.,Institute of Veterinary Pathology | And 5 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which currently affects 387 million people worldwide, is permanently rising in both adults and adolescents. Despite numerous treatment options, diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with severe comorbidities, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy, as well as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, animal models predictive of the efficacy and safety of novel compounds in humans are of great value to address the unmet need for improved therapeutics. Although rodent models provide important mechanistic insights, their predictive value for therapeutic outcomes in humans is limited. In recent years, the pig has gained importance for biomedical research because of its close similarity to human anatomy, physiology, size, and, in contrast to non-human primates, better ethical acceptance. In this review, anatomic, biochemical, physiological, and morphologic aspects relevant to diabetes research will be compared between different animal species, that is, mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, and non-human primates. The value of the pig as a model organism for diabetes research will be highlighted, and (dis)advantages of the currently available approaches for the generation of pig models exhibiting characteristics of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus will be discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Center for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Small Animal Medicine Clinic. and Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy.
Type: | Journal: Equine veterinary journal | Year: 2015

New therapeutic strategies to modulate immune responses in human and equine allergic airway diseases are under extensive investigation. Stimulation of Treg cells with immune modulating agents is a novel therapeutic option.The aim of this field study was to compare the effects of a nebulised nanoparticulate CpG immunotherapy (CpG-GNP) with and without specific allergens.Longitudinal clinical study comparing 2 therapeutic options.Twenty RAO-affected horses were divided into 2 treatment groups (CpG alone and CpG with allergens). Two specific allergens were selected for each horse according to anamnesis and a functional in vitro test. Treatments were given by nebulisation 7 times and the horses were examined 3 times: baseline (I), after the treatment course (II), and after 6 weeks later (III). Clinical parameters, indirect intrapleural measurement, arterial blood gas, amount of tracheal mucus and neutrophil percentage were evaluated.CpG alone resulted in a significant improvement in clinical parameters and a significant reduction of tracheal mucus after treatment and at 6 weeks post treatment. After CpG plus specific allergens, there was significant improvement of 70% of examined parameters. However, there were no significant differences in the results compared with CpG-GNP treatment alone.There were no significant differences between treatment groups. CpG-GNP immunotherapy alone produced a potent and persistent effect on allergic and inflammatory parameters and may have potential as for treatment of equine and human allergic inflammatory airway diseases. Ethical animal research:The study was approved by the regional legal agency for animal experiments of the Government of Bavaria, Germany (No. 55.2-1-54-2531-31-10). Owners gave informed consent for their horses inclusion in the study. Sources of funding:Partly supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (Germany) (GE2044/4-1). The AeroNeb Go vibrating mesh nebuliser (Aerogen, Galway, Ireland) was sponsored by Inspiration Medical (Bochum, Germany). Competing interests:None declared.


PubMed | Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Institute of Veterinary Pathology and Center for Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which currently affects 387 million people worldwide, is permanently rising in both adults and adolescents. Despite numerous treatment options, diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease with severe comorbidities, such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy, as well as cardiovascular disease. Therefore, animal models predictive of the efficacy and safety of novel compounds in humans are of great value to address the unmet need for improved therapeutics. Although rodent models provide important mechanistic insights, their predictive value for therapeutic outcomes in humans is limited. In recent years, the pig has gained importance for biomedical research because of its close similarity to human anatomy, physiology, size, and, in contrast to non-human primates, better ethical acceptance. In this review, anatomic, biochemical, physiological, and morphologic aspects relevant to diabetes research will be compared between different animal species, that is, mouse, rat, rabbit, pig, and non-human primates. The value of the pig as a model organism for diabetes research will be highlighted, and (dis)advantages of the currently available approaches for the generation of pig models exhibiting characteristics of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus will be discussed.


PubMed | Center for Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2015

A novel circovirus was identified in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). The genome of the circovirus strain, designated 8454V25-1, comprised 1,982 nucleotides with two major open reading frames encoding a replication-associated protein and a viral capsid protein.


PubMed | b Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, c Independent Scholar and Center for Clinical Veterinary Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A | Year: 2016

A recently identified circovirus (family Circoviridae) was detected in 14 zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) from seven aviaries and hobbyist breeders using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing. Full genome sequences of virus strains from six zebra finches consistently revealed characteristic circoviral genomic features such as a stem-loop structure and two major open reading frames (ORFs) encoding the replication-associated protein and the putative capsid protein. One further ORF encoding a protein of unknown function was additionally identified in all six genomes. Based on full genome nucleotide comparison, zebra finch circovirus was most similar to Finch circovirus originating from a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) sharing 78% nucleotide identity. High genetic diversity was detected in the circoviruses from individual zebra finches. Comparison of the six full genome sequences revealed two genetic subgroups, which shared pairwise nucleotide identities between 91.4% and 92.7%. Analyses including partial sequences of the replication-associated protein gene of the zebra finch circovirus strains from all 14 birds supported the existence of two main clusters. Clinical diseases associated with circovirus infection were found in nestlings, fledglings and adult birds and varied from mild to severe with high mortality caused by secondary infections. Macrorhabdus ornithogaster was the most frequently detected opportunistic pathogen. Feathering disorders were seen in two birds. Lymphocytic depletion of the spleen and leukocytopaenia were detected in individual birds, suggesting immunosuppression and a pathogenesis common to circovirus infections in other birds.

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