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PubMed | University of Illinois at Chicago, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and, Kaiser Permanente, University Hospitals Case Medical Center Cleveland and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN | Year: 2016

Measured GFR (mGFR) has long been considered the gold standard measure of kidney function, but recent studies have shown that mGFR is not consistently superior to eGFR in explaining CKD-related comorbidities. The associations between longitudinal changes in mGFR versus eGFR and adverse outcomes have not been examined. We analyzed a subset of 942 participants with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study who had at least two mGFRs and two eGFRs determined concurrently by iothalamate and creatinine (eGFRcr) or cystatin C, respectively. We compared the associations between longitudinal changes in each measure of kidney function over 2 years and risks of ESRD, nonfatal cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality using univariate Cox proportional hazards models. The associations for all outcomes except all-cause mortality associated most strongly with longitudinal decline in eGFRcr. Every 5-ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decline in eGFRcr over 2 years associated with 1.54 (95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.66; P<0.001) times higher risk of ESRD and 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.34; P<0.001) times higher risk for cardiovascular events. All-cause mortality did not associate with longitudinal decline in mGFR or eGFR. When analyzed by tertiles of renal function decline, mGFR did not outperform eGFRcr in the association with any outcome. In conclusion, compared with declines in eGFR, declines in mGFR over a 2-year period, analyzed either as a continuous variable or in tertiles, did not consistently show enhanced association with risk of ESRD, cardiovascular events, or death.


PubMed | University of Pennsylvania, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and, Allergy and Critical Care and, and Critical Care and Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics and and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN | Year: 2015

ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis.We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria.Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort.Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility.

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