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Hwang S.,Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral science | Mahadevan S.,Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral science | Qadir F.,Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral science | Hutchison I.L.,Barts and the London NHS Trust | And 5 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND Epigenetic reprogramming of the methylome has been implicated in all stages of cancer evolution. It is now well accepted that cancer cells exploit epigenetic reprogramming, a mechanism that regulates stem/progenitor cell renewal and differentiation, to promote cancer initiation and progression. The oncogene FOXM1 has been implicated in all major forms of human cancer. METHODS We have recently shown that aberrant upregulation of FOXM1 orchestrated a DNA methylation signature that mimics the cancer methylome landscape, from which we have identified a number of FOXM1-induced epigenetic markers. Differential promoter methylation and gene expression in clinical specimens were measured using commercially available bisulfite conversion kits and absolute quantitative PCR, respectively. RESULTS Here, we investigated 8 FOXM1-induced differentially methylated genes, SPCS1, FLNA, CHPF, GLT8D1, C6orf136, MGAT1, NDUFA10, and PAFAH1B3, using human head and neck tissue specimens donated by 2 geographically independent patient cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom. Two genes (GLT8D1 and C6orf136) were found to be differentially expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Using methylation-specific quantitative PCR, we confirmed that the promoters of GLT8D1 and C6orf136 were hypo- and hypermethylated, respectively, in HNSCC tissues. CONCLUSIONS Given that epigenetic change precedes gene expression, methylation status of candidate genes identified from this study may represent a signature of premalignancy, rendering them potentially useful predictive biomarkers for precancer screening and/or therapeutic targets for cancer prevention. Source

Macey M.,The Royal London Hospital | Hagi-Pavli E.,Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral science | Stewart J.,Center for Clinical and Diagnostic Oral science | Wallace G.R.,University of Birmingham | And 3 more authors.
Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objectives: Behçet's disease (BD) is more severe among young males and disease severity decreases with age. Therefore, the effect of disease activity, gender and age on platelet and neutrophil activation in whole blood taken from patients with BD was investigated. Methods: Using an anti-coagulant Tripotassium ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (K3EDTA) plus citratetheophylline-adenosine-dipyridamole (CTAD) (K3EDTA/CTAD) that preserves the degree of platelet activation that exists in vivo, we assessed neutrophil and platelet activation, microparticles, and monocyte and neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation in 43 BD patients using flow cytometry. This is the first description of platelet activation and microparticles in BD patients using this methodology. Results: Inactive [2.78 (0.56)%, P = 0.0009; 3.11 (0.78)%, P<0.0001] and active [2.28 (0.84)%, P<0.0001; 3.071 (0.67)%, P = 0.0031] BD patients had significantly higher percentages of CD62P-expressing platelets and CD62P+ platelet microparticles as compared with healthy controls (HCs) [0.84 (0.1)% and 1.23 (0.14)%], respectively. The percentages of CD62P+ platelets and CD62P+ platelet microparticles in female and male BD patients were also significantly higher than those expressed by female and male HCs. The percentages of CD62P+ microparticles were significantly increased in the 20-30-(P = 0.0301) and 31-50-(P<0.0162) year age ranges, but not in the >50-year age group of BD patients. Conclusion: BD is a rare, chronic multi-systemic vasculitis and interaction of activated platelets with leucocytes has been linked to pathological disorders associated with vascular inflammation. Importantly, this study demonstrates that platelet microparticle activation is increased in BD. Also, this is the first report in which changes in platelet activation in BD are concordant with the observations that BD disease activity diminishes with age. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. Source

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