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Gallop S.L.,University of Southampton | Young I.R.,Australian National University | Ranasinghe R.,Australian National University | Ranasinghe R.,Deltares | And 3 more authors.
Coral Reefs | Year: 2014

Offshore reef systems consist of individual reefs, with spaces in between, which together constitute the reef matrix. This is the first comprehensive, large-scale study, of the influence of an offshore reef system on wave climate and wave transmission. The focus was on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, utilizing a 16-yr record of wave height from seven satellite altimeters. Within the GBR matrix, the wave climate is not strongly dependent on reef matrix submergence. This suggests that after initial wave breaking at the seaward edge of the reef matrix, wave energy that penetrates the matrix has little depth modulation. There is no clear evidence to suggest that as reef matrix porosity (ratio of spaces between individual reefs to reef area) decreases, wave attenuation increases. This is because individual reefs cast a wave shadow much larger than the reef itself; thus, a matrix of isolated reefs is remarkably effective at attenuating wave energy. This weak dependence of transmitted wave energy on depth of reef submergence, and reef matrix porosity, is also evident in the lee of the GBR matrix. Here, wave conditions appear to be dependent largely on local wind speed, rather than wave conditions either seaward, or within the reef matrix. This is because the GBR matrix is a very effective wave absorber, irrespective of water depth and reef matrix porosity. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Sun Z.,Center for weather and climate research
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society | Year: 2011

A new version of the Edwards-Slingo (ES) radiation scheme is developed using the correlated-k distribution (CKD) method. The work is conducted based on the line-by-line radiative transfer scheme GENLN2. A dataset of new ozone absorption cross-section in the ultraviolet spectrum and new oxygen collision-induced continuum data have been implemented in both the GENLN2 and new ES schemes. In order to improve the efficiency of the ES scheme, a new technique is proposed in this work to optimize the k distribution and a new method is used to deal with the gaseous overlapping absorption in a spectral band. The accuracy of the scheme is improved by replacing the scaling function used in the ES scheme with a pre-determined look-up table for consideration of the pressure and temperature dependency of the absorption oefficients. The number of spectral bands and number of absorbing species are both increased in the new scheme for better resolution of the spectral variation of absorbing species, aerosols and clouds. However, this does not increase the computational cost. Instead, it is reduced substantially compared with the previous version of the code. The treatment of transmission in the short-wave spectrum is improved by implementing the absorbing species of CH 4, N 2O and O 2 collision-induced continuum absorption which are not included in the ES scheme. New O 3 absorption cross-section data in the ultraviolet spectrum measured by the European Space Agency are used to generate the CKD spectral data in the short-wave spectral bands. These data have a temperature dependency and better spectral resolution. The irradiance and heating rate determined by the new scheme are tested against the same variables determined by GENLN2. It has been shown that the new scheme produces results more accurate than the ES scheme. © 2011 Royal Meteorological Society. Source

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