Bromundt V.,Center for Chronobiology |
Koster M.,Psychiatric Hospital |
Georgiev-Kill A.,Psychiatric Hospital |
Wirz-Justice A.,Center for Chronobiology |
And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2011
Background: Irregular sleep-wake cycles and cognitive impairment are frequently observed in schizophrenia, however, how they interact remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the repercussions of circadian rhythm characteristics on cognitive performance and psychopathology in individuals with schizophrenia. Method: Fourteen middle-aged individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia underwent continuous wrist actimetry monitoring in real-life settings for 3 weeks, and collected saliva samples to determine the onset of endogenous melatonin secretion as a circadian phase marker. Moreover, participants underwent multiple neuropsychological testing and clinical assessments throughout the study period. Results: Sleep-wake cycles in individuals with schizophrenia ranged from well entrained to highly disturbed rhythms with fragmented sleep epochs, together with delayed melatonin onsets and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Participants with a normal rest-activity cycle (objectively determined by high relative amplitude of day/night activity) performed significantly better in frontal lobe function tasks. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that relative amplitude and age represented the best predictors for cognitive performance (Stroop colour-word interference task, Trail Making Test A and B, semantic verbal fluency task), whereas psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) did not significantly correlate with either cognitive performance levels or the quality of sleep-wake cycles. Conclusions: Consolidated circadian rhythms and sleep may be a prerequisite for adequate cognitive functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. © 2011 The Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Chow B.Y.,Center for Chronobiology |
Helfer A.,Center for Chronobiology |
Nusinow D.A.,Center for Chronobiology |
Kay S.A.,Center for Chronobiology
Plant Signaling and Behavior | Year: 2012
Biological timekeeping is essential for proper growth and development. Organisms such as the model plant Arabidopsis use the circadian clock to coordinate biological processes with the environment so that changes in conditions are anticipated and processes favorably phased. Despite the identification of numerous clock genes, knowledge of their molecular connectivity and influence on output programs remains limited. We recently showed LUX encodes a sequencespecific DNA-binding protein that directly regulates expression of the morning clock gene PRR9. We also showed that LUX interacts with the evening-phased proteins ELF3 and ELF4 to form a complex called the Evening Complex (EC). The EC binds the PIF4 and PIF5 promoters to control hypocotyl growth as a clock output. Here we provide evidence that LUX also recruits ELF3 to the PRR9 promoter. As with the PIF4 and PIF5 promoters, both LUX and its close homolog NOX are required for recruitment. Hence the entire EC likely functions together as part of the core clock oscillator to optimize plant fitness. © 2012 Landes Bioscience.