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Thom S.,Imperial College London | Poulter N.,Imperial College London | Field J.,Imperial College London | Patel A.,George Institute for Global Health | And 9 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Most patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not take recommended medications long-term. The use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) improves adherence in several clinical areas. Previous trials of cardiovascular FDCs have assessed short-term effects compared with placebo or no treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether FDC delivery of aspirin, statin, and 2 blood pressure-lowering agents vs usual care improves long-term adherence to indicated therapy and 2 major CVD risk factors, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The UMPIRE trial, a randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial among 2004 participants with established CVD or at risk of CVD enrolled July 2010-July 2011 in India and Europe. The trial follow-up concluded in July 2012. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to an FDC-based strategy (n=1002) containing either (1) 75 mg aspirin, 40 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril, and 50 mg atenolol or (2) 75 mg aspirin, 40 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril, and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide or to usual care (n=1002). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adherence to medication (defined as self-reported use of antiplatelet, statin, and ≥2 BP-lowering medications) and changes in SBP and LDL-C from baseline. RESULTS: At baseline, mean BP was 137/78mmHg, LDL-C was 91.5mg/dL, and 1233 (61.5%) of 2004 participants reported use of antiplatelet, statin, and 2 or more BP-lowering medications. Median follow-up was 15 months (interquartile range, 12-18 months). The FDC group had improved adherence vs usual care (86%vs 65%; relative risk [RR] of being adherent, 1.33; 95%CI, 1.26-1.41; P < .001) with concurrent reductions in SBP (-2.6mmHg; 95%CI, -4.0 to -1.1mmHg; P < .001) and LDL-C (-4.2 mg/dL; 95%CI, -6.6 to -1.9 mg/dL; P < .001) at the end of the study. Although there was consistency of effects across predefined subgroups, evidence existed of larger benefits in patients with lower adherence at baseline. In this subgroup of 727 participants (36%), adherence at the end of study was 77%vs 23% (RR, 3.35; 95%CI, 2.74-4.09; P < .001 for interaction), SBP was reduced by 4.9mmHg (95% CI 7.3-2.6mmHg; P = .01 for interaction), and LDL-C was reduced by 6.7mg/dL (95%CI, 10.5-2.8mg/dL; P = .11 for interaction). There were no significant differences in serious adverse events or cardiovascular events (50 [5%] in the FDC group and 35 [3.5%] in the usual care group; RR, 1.45; 95%CI, 0.94-2.24; P=.09) between the groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with or at high risk of CVD, use of an FDC strategy for blood pressure, cholesterol, and platelet control vs usual care resulted in significantly improved medication adherence at 15 months and statistically significant but small improvements in SBP and LDL-C. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01057537.

Poulter N.R.,Imperial College London | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Caulfield M.,Queen Mary, University of London
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Raised blood pressure is the biggest single contributor to the global burden of disease and to global mortality. The numbers of people affected and the prevalence of high blood pressure worldwide are expected to increase over the next decade. Preventive strategies are therefore urgently needed, especially in less developed countries, and management of hypertension must be optimised. Genetic advances in some rare causes of hypertension have been made lately, but the aggregate effect on blood pressure of all the genetic loci identified to date is small. Hence, intervention on key environmental determinants and effective implementation of trial-based therapies are needed. Three-drug combinations can control hypertension in about 90% of patients but only if resources allow identification of patients and drug delivery is affordable. Furthermore, assessment of optimal drug therapy for each ethnic group is needed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Philip P.M.,Malabar Cancer Center | Parambill N.A.,Malabar Cancer Center | Bhaskarapillai B.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Balasubramanian S.,Malabar Cancer Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are almost always initiated and established during adolescence. More than 80% of adult smokers begin smoking before 18 years of age. The main objective of the present study is to assess the feasibility of preventing adolescent tobacco use with the help of a specially designed tobacco control program. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey on tobacco use and related health effects was conducted using a structured questionnaire in 13 randomly selected schools in Kannur district of Kerala. These students were followed for a period of one academic year with multiple spaced interventions such as anti-tobacco awareness classes, formation of anti-tobacco task forces, inter-school competitions, supplying IEC (information, education and communication) materials and providing a handbook on tobacco control for school personnel. Final evaluation was at the end of one year. Results: There were 4,144 school children who participated in the first phase of the study. The prevalence of tobacco smoking and chewing habits were 9.85% and 2.24% respectively. Ninety-one percent had parental advice against tobacco use and only 3.79% expressed desire for future tobacco use. The final evaluation witnessed a sharp decline in the current tobacco use as 4.68%. We observed a statistically significant difference towards the future use of tobacco (p<0.001) and awareness about the ill effects of passive smoking (p<0.001) among boys and girls. Further a significantly increased knowledge was observed among boys compared to girls about tobacco and oral cancer (p=0.046). Conclusions: The comprehensive school based tobacco control project significantly reduced the tobacco use pattern in the target population. School tobacco projects incorporating frequent follow ups and multiple interventions appear more effective than projects with single intervention.

Dhillon P.K.,A+ Network | Jeemon P.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Jeemon P.,University of Glasgow | Arora N.K.,A+ Network | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Background The South-East Asia region (SEAR) accounts for one-quarter of the world's population, 40% of the global poor and ∼30% of the global disease burden, with a disproportionately large share of tuberculosis (35%), injuries (30%), maternal (33%) and <5-year-old mortality (30%). In this article, we describe the disease burden and status of epidemiological research and capacity in the SEAR to understand, analyse and develop capacity in response to the diverse burdens of diseases in the region. Methods Data on morbidity, mortality, risk factors, social determinants, research capacity, health education, workforce and systems in the SEAR were obtained using global data on burden of disease, peer-reviewed journals, World Health Organization (WHO) technical and advisory reports, and where available, validated country reports and key informants from the region. Results SEAR countries are afflicted with a triple burden of disease-infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases and injuries. Of the seven WHO regions, SEAR countries account for the highest proportion of global mortality (26%) and due to relatively younger ages at death, the second highest percentage of total years of life lost (30%). The SEAR exceeds the global average annual mortality rate for all three broad cause groupings-communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions (334 vs 230 per 100 000); non-communicable diseases (676 vs 573 per 100 000); and injuries (101 vs 78 per 100 000). Poverty, education and other social determinants of health are strongly linked to inequities in health among SEAR countries and within socio-economic subgroups. India, Thailand and Bangladesh produce two-thirds of epidemiology publications in the region. Significant efforts to increase health workforce capacity, research and training have been undertaken in the region, yet considerable heterogeneity in resources and capacity remains. Conclusions Health systems, statistics and surveillance programmes must respond to the demographic, economic and epidemiological transitions that define the current disease burden and risk profile of SEAR populations. Inequities in health must be critically analysed, documented and addressed through multi-sectoral approaches. There is a critical need to improve public health intelligence by building epidemiological capacity in the region. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association © The Author 2012.

Huffman M.D.,Northwestern University | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Abraham A.K.,Indira Gandhi Memorial Cooperative Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2013

Background-In-hospital and postdischarge treatment rates for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain low in India. However, little is known about the prevalence and associations of the package of optimal ACS medical care in India. Our objective was to define the prevalence, associations, and impact of optimal in-hospital and discharge medical therapy in the Kerala ACS Registry of 25 718 admissions. Methods and Results-We defined optimal in-hospital ACS medical therapy as receiving the following 5 medications: aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, β-blocker, and statin. We defined optimal discharge ACS medical therapy as receiving all of the above therapies except heparin. Comparisons by optimal versus nonoptimal ACS care were made via Student t test for continuous variables and X2 test for categorical variables. We created random effects logistic regression models to evaluate the association between Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score variables and optimal in-hospital or discharge medical therapy. Optimal in-hospital and discharge medical care were delivered in 40% and 46% of admissions, respectively. Wide variability in both in-hospital and discharge medical care was present, with few hospitals reaching consistently high (>90%) levels. Patients receiving optimal in-hospital medical therapy had an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.93 (0.71, 1.22) for in-hospital death and an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.79 (0.63, 0.99) for major adverse cardiovascular event rates. Patients who received optimal in-hospital medical care were far more likely to receive optimal discharge care (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 10.48 [9.37, 11.72]). Conclusions-Strategies to improve in-hospital and discharge medical therapy are needed to improve local process-of-care measures and ACS outcomes in Kerala. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

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