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Lall D.,Center for chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Center for chronic Disease Control
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy | Year: 2014

Chronic non-communicable diseases, predominantly diabetes and cardiovascular disease are a major public health problem globally. The chronicity of these diseases necessitates a restructuring of healthcare to address the multidisciplinary, sustained care including psychosocial support and development of self-management skills. Primary healthcare with elements of the chronic-care model provides the best opportunity for engagement with the health system. In this review, the authors discuss aspects of primary healthcare for management of diabetes and hypertension and innovations such as mobile-phone messaging, web-based registries, computer-based decision support systems and multifaceted health professionals in the care team among others that are being tested to improve the quality of care for these diseases in high, middle and low-income countries. The goal of quality care for diabetes and hypertension demands innovation within the realities of health systems both in high as well as low and middle-income countries. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Thom S.,Imperial College London | Poulter N.,Imperial College London | Field J.,Imperial College London | Patel A.,George Institute for Global Health | And 9 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2013

IMPORTANCE: Most patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not take recommended medications long-term. The use of fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) improves adherence in several clinical areas. Previous trials of cardiovascular FDCs have assessed short-term effects compared with placebo or no treatment. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether FDC delivery of aspirin, statin, and 2 blood pressure-lowering agents vs usual care improves long-term adherence to indicated therapy and 2 major CVD risk factors, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The UMPIRE trial, a randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial among 2004 participants with established CVD or at risk of CVD enrolled July 2010-July 2011 in India and Europe. The trial follow-up concluded in July 2012. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to an FDC-based strategy (n=1002) containing either (1) 75 mg aspirin, 40 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril, and 50 mg atenolol or (2) 75 mg aspirin, 40 mg simvastatin, 10 mg lisinopril, and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide or to usual care (n=1002). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adherence to medication (defined as self-reported use of antiplatelet, statin, and ≥2 BP-lowering medications) and changes in SBP and LDL-C from baseline. RESULTS: At baseline, mean BP was 137/78mmHg, LDL-C was 91.5mg/dL, and 1233 (61.5%) of 2004 participants reported use of antiplatelet, statin, and 2 or more BP-lowering medications. Median follow-up was 15 months (interquartile range, 12-18 months). The FDC group had improved adherence vs usual care (86%vs 65%; relative risk [RR] of being adherent, 1.33; 95%CI, 1.26-1.41; P < .001) with concurrent reductions in SBP (-2.6mmHg; 95%CI, -4.0 to -1.1mmHg; P < .001) and LDL-C (-4.2 mg/dL; 95%CI, -6.6 to -1.9 mg/dL; P < .001) at the end of the study. Although there was consistency of effects across predefined subgroups, evidence existed of larger benefits in patients with lower adherence at baseline. In this subgroup of 727 participants (36%), adherence at the end of study was 77%vs 23% (RR, 3.35; 95%CI, 2.74-4.09; P < .001 for interaction), SBP was reduced by 4.9mmHg (95% CI 7.3-2.6mmHg; P = .01 for interaction), and LDL-C was reduced by 6.7mg/dL (95%CI, 10.5-2.8mg/dL; P = .11 for interaction). There were no significant differences in serious adverse events or cardiovascular events (50 [5%] in the FDC group and 35 [3.5%] in the usual care group; RR, 1.45; 95%CI, 0.94-2.24; P=.09) between the groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Among patients with or at high risk of CVD, use of an FDC strategy for blood pressure, cholesterol, and platelet control vs usual care resulted in significantly improved medication adherence at 15 months and statistically significant but small improvements in SBP and LDL-C. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01057537.

Anchala R.,University of Cambridge | Anchala R.,Amar Co operative Society | Kannuri N.K.,Amar Co operative Society | Pant H.,Amar Co operative Society | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2014

Background: A region-specific (urban and rural parts of north, east, west, and south India) systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among Indian patients have not been done before. Methods: Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 to 30 April 2013 were searched for 'prevalence, burden, awareness, and control of blood pressure (BP) or hypertension (140 SBP and or 90 DBP) among Indian adults' (18 years). Of the total 3047 articles, 142 were included. Results: Overall prevalence for hypertension in India was 29.8% (95% confidence interval: 26.7-33.0). Significant differences in hypertension prevalence were noted between rural and urban parts [27.6% (23.2-32.0) and 33.8% (29.7-37.8); P=0.05]. Regional estimates for the prevalence of hypertension were as follows: 14.5% (13.3-15.7), 31.7% (30.2-33.3), 18.1% (16.9-19.2), and 21.1% (20.1-22.0) for rural north, east, west, and south India; and 28.8% (26.9-30.8), 34.5% (32.6-36.5), 35.8% (35.2-36.5), and 31.8% (30.4-33.1) for urban north, east, west, and south India, respectively. Overall estimates for the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of BP were 25.3% (21.4-29.3), 25.1% (17.0-33.1), and 10.7% (6.5-15.0) for rural Indians; and 42.0% (35.2-48.9), 37.6% (24.0-51.2), and 20.2% (11.6-28.7) for urban Indians. Conclusion: About 33% urban and 25% rural Indians are hypertensive. Of these, 25% rural and 42% urban Indians are aware of their hypertensive status. Only 25% rural and 38% of urban Indians are being treated for hypertension. One-tenth of rural and one-fifth of urban Indian hypertensive population have their BP under control. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams Wilkins.

Ali M.K.,Emory University | Shah S.,Emory University | Tandon N.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Tandon N.,Center for Chronic Disease Control
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Context: Diabetes care is complex, requiring motivated patients, providers, and systems that enable guideline-based preventative care processes, intensive risk-factor control, and positive lifestyle choices. However, care delivery in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) is hindered by a compendium of systemic and personal factors. While electronic medical records (EMR) and computerized clinical decision-support systems (CDSS) have held great promise as interventions that will overcome system-level challenges to improving evidence-based health care delivery, evaluation of these quality improvement interventions for diabetes care in LMICs is lacking. Objective and Data Sources: We reviewed the published medical literature (systematic search of MEDLINE database supplemented by manual searches) to assess the quantifiable and qualitative impacts of combined EMR-CDSS tools on physician performance and patient outcomes and their applicability in LMICs. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Inclusion criteria prespecified the population (type 1 or 2 diabetes patients), intervention (clinical EMR-CDSS tools with enhanced functionalities), and outcomes (any process, self-care, or patient-level data) of interest. Case, review, or methods reports and studies focused on nondiabetes, nonclinical, or in-patient uses of EMR-CDSS were excluded. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted from studies by separate single reviewers, respectively, and relevant data were synthesized. Results: Thirty-three studies met inclusion criteria, originating exclusively from high-income country settings. Among predominantly experimental study designs, process improvements were consistently observed along with small, variable improvements in risk-factor control, compared with baseline and/or control groups (where applicable). Intervention benefits varied by baseline patient characteristics, features of the EMR-CDSS interventions, motivation and access to technology among patients and providers, and whether EMR-CDSS tools were combined with other quality improvement strategies (e.g., workflow changes, case managers, algorithms, incentives). Patients shared experiences of feeling empowered and benefiting from increased provider attention and feedback but also frustration with technical difficulties of EMR-CDSS tools. Providers reported more efficient and standardized processes plus continuity of care but also role tensions and "mechanization" of care. Conclusions: This narrative review supports EMR-CDSS tools as innovative conduits for structuring and standardizing care processes but also highlights setting and selection limitations of the evidence reviewed. In the context of limited resources, individual economic hardships, and lack of structured systems or trained human capital, this review reinforces the need for well-designed investigations evaluating the role and feasibility of technological interventions (customized to each LMIC's locality) in clinical decision making for diabetes care. © Diabetes Technology Society.

Poulter N.R.,Imperial College London | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Caulfield M.,Queen Mary, University of London
The Lancet | Year: 2015

Raised blood pressure is the biggest single contributor to the global burden of disease and to global mortality. The numbers of people affected and the prevalence of high blood pressure worldwide are expected to increase over the next decade. Preventive strategies are therefore urgently needed, especially in less developed countries, and management of hypertension must be optimised. Genetic advances in some rare causes of hypertension have been made lately, but the aggregate effect on blood pressure of all the genetic loci identified to date is small. Hence, intervention on key environmental determinants and effective implementation of trial-based therapies are needed. Three-drug combinations can control hypertension in about 90% of patients but only if resources allow identification of patients and drug delivery is affordable. Furthermore, assessment of optimal drug therapy for each ethnic group is needed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Huffman M.D.,Northwestern University | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Asia Risk Centre | Abraham A.K.,Indira Gandhi Memorial Cooperative Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2013

Background-In-hospital and postdischarge treatment rates for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remain low in India. However, little is known about the prevalence and associations of the package of optimal ACS medical care in India. Our objective was to define the prevalence, associations, and impact of optimal in-hospital and discharge medical therapy in the Kerala ACS Registry of 25 718 admissions. Methods and Results-We defined optimal in-hospital ACS medical therapy as receiving the following 5 medications: aspirin, clopidogrel, heparin, β-blocker, and statin. We defined optimal discharge ACS medical therapy as receiving all of the above therapies except heparin. Comparisons by optimal versus nonoptimal ACS care were made via Student t test for continuous variables and X2 test for categorical variables. We created random effects logistic regression models to evaluate the association between Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score variables and optimal in-hospital or discharge medical therapy. Optimal in-hospital and discharge medical care were delivered in 40% and 46% of admissions, respectively. Wide variability in both in-hospital and discharge medical care was present, with few hospitals reaching consistently high (>90%) levels. Patients receiving optimal in-hospital medical therapy had an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.93 (0.71, 1.22) for in-hospital death and an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)=0.79 (0.63, 0.99) for major adverse cardiovascular event rates. Patients who received optimal in-hospital medical care were far more likely to receive optimal discharge care (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 10.48 [9.37, 11.72]). Conclusions-Strategies to improve in-hospital and discharge medical therapy are needed to improve local process-of-care measures and ACS outcomes in Kerala. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

Ajay V.S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ajay V.S.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control
Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, can be harnessed to improve diabetes care. Cell phones could serve as a tool for collecting information on surveillance, service delivery, evidence-based care, management, and supply systems pertaining to diabetes from primary care settings in addition to providing health messages as part of diabetes education. As a screening/diagnostic tool for diabetes, cell phones can aid the health workers in undertaking screening and diagnostic and follow-up care for diabetes in the community. Cell phones are also capable of acting as a vehicle for continuing medical education; a decision support system for evidence-based management; and a tool for patient education, self-management, and compliance. However, for widespread use, we need robust evaluations of cell phone applications in existing practices and appropriate interventions in diabetes. © Diabetes Technology Society.

Ajay V.S.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2010

Coronary heart diseases (CHD) have reached epidemic proportions among Indians. The recently concluded INTWERHEART study emphasizes the role of behavioural and conventional risk factors in the prediction of CHD risk among Indians. These findings have implication for the health care providers and policy makers in the country due to the fact that all these conventional risk factors are potentially modifiable and are good starting points for prevention. The policy measures by means of legislation and regulatory approaches on agriculture and food industry or tobacco or physical activity will have large impact on CHD risk factor reduction in the population. In addition, the health system needs to focus on: (i) providing information for increasing awareness and an enabling environment for adoption of healthy living habits by the community; (ii) early detection of persons with risk factors and cost-effective interventions for reducing risk; and (iii) early detection of persons with clinical disease and cost-effective secondary prevention measures to prevent complications. The evidence from INTERHEART provides rationale for developing treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for CHD at various levels of health care. In addition, INTERHEART provides answer for the quest for a single reliable biomarker, Apo B/ApoA 1 ratio that can predict the future CHD risk among individuals. Further to this, the INTERHEART study also opens up several unanswered questions on the pathobiology of the premature onset of myocardial infarction among Indians and calls for the need to developing capacity in clinical research in CHD in India.

Huffman M.D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Prabhakaran D.,Center for Chronic Disease Control
National Medical Journal of India | Year: 2010

Reliable estimates of heart failure are lacking in India because of the absence of a surveillance programme to track incidence, prevalence, outcomes and key causes of heart failure. Nevertheless, we propose that the incidence and prevalence rates of heart failure are rising due to population, epidemiological and health transitions. Based on disease-specific estimates of prevalence and incidence rates of heart failure, we conservatively estimate the prevalence of heart failure in India due to coronary heart disease, hypertension, obesity, diabetes and rheumatic heart disease to range from 1.3 to 4.6 million, with an annual incidence of 491 600-1.8 million. The double burden of rising cardiovascular risk factors and persistent 'pretransition' diseases such as rheumatic heart disease, limited healthcare infrastructure and social disparities contribute to these estimates. Staging of heart failure, introduced in 2005, provides a framework to target preventive strategies in patients at risk for heart failure (stage A), with structural disease alone (B), with heart failure symptoms (C) and with end-stage disease (D). Policy-level interventions, such as regulations to limit salt and tobacco consumption, are effective for primordial prevention and would have a wider impact on prevention of heart failure. Clinical preventive interventions and clinical quality improvement interventions, such as treatment of hypertension, atherosclerotic disease, diabetes and acute decompensated heart failure are effective for primary, secondary and even tertiary prevention. © The National Medical Journal of India 2010.

Philip P.M.,Malabar Cancer Center | Parambill N.A.,Malabar Cancer Center | Bhaskarapillai B.,Center for Chronic Disease Control | Balasubramanian S.,Malabar Cancer Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Smoking and smokeless tobacco use are almost always initiated and established during adolescence. More than 80% of adult smokers begin smoking before 18 years of age. The main objective of the present study is to assess the feasibility of preventing adolescent tobacco use with the help of a specially designed tobacco control program. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey on tobacco use and related health effects was conducted using a structured questionnaire in 13 randomly selected schools in Kannur district of Kerala. These students were followed for a period of one academic year with multiple spaced interventions such as anti-tobacco awareness classes, formation of anti-tobacco task forces, inter-school competitions, supplying IEC (information, education and communication) materials and providing a handbook on tobacco control for school personnel. Final evaluation was at the end of one year. Results: There were 4,144 school children who participated in the first phase of the study. The prevalence of tobacco smoking and chewing habits were 9.85% and 2.24% respectively. Ninety-one percent had parental advice against tobacco use and only 3.79% expressed desire for future tobacco use. The final evaluation witnessed a sharp decline in the current tobacco use as 4.68%. We observed a statistically significant difference towards the future use of tobacco (p<0.001) and awareness about the ill effects of passive smoking (p<0.001) among boys and girls. Further a significantly increased knowledge was observed among boys compared to girls about tobacco and oral cancer (p=0.046). Conclusions: The comprehensive school based tobacco control project significantly reduced the tobacco use pattern in the target population. School tobacco projects incorporating frequent follow ups and multiple interventions appear more effective than projects with single intervention.

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