Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries

Gurgaon, India

Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries

Gurgaon, India
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Fazel M.,University of Oxford | Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Patel V.,Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries | Thomas S.,United Nations Childrens FundNY
The Lancet Psychiatry | Year: 2014

Increasing enrolment rates could place schools in a crucial position to support mental health in low-income and middle-income countries. In this Review, we provide evidence for mental health interventions in schools in accordance with a public mental health approach spanning promotion, prevention, and treatment. We identified a systematic review for mental health promotion, and identified further prevention and treatment studies. Present evidence supports schools as places for promotion of positive aspects of mental health using a whole-school approach. Knowledge of effectiveness of prevention and treatment interventions is more widely available for conflict-affected children and adolescents. More evidence is needed to identify the many elements likely to be associated with effective prevention and treatment for children exposed to a range of adversity and types of mental disorders. Dissemination and implementation science is crucial to establish how proven effective interventions could be scaled up and implemented in schools. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | World Health Organization, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Central South University, Emory University and 3 more.
Type: Review | Journal: Lancet (London, England) | Year: 2016

This Series paper describes the first systematic effort to review the unmet mental health needs of adults in China and India. The evidence shows that contact coverage for the most common mental and substance use disorders is very low. Effective coverage is even lower, even for severe disorders such as psychotic disorders and epilepsy. There are vast variations across the regions of both countries, with the highest treatment gaps in rural regions because of inequities in the distribution of mental health resources, and variable implementation of mental health policies across states and provinces. Human and financial resources for mental health are grossly inadequate with less than 1% of the national health-care budget allocated to mental health in either country. Although China and India have both shown renewed commitment through national programmes for community-oriented mental health care, progress in achieving coverage is far more substantial in China. Improvement of coverage will need to address both supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers related to stigma and varying explanatory models of mental disorders. Sharing tasks with community-based workers in a collaborative stepped-care framework is an approach that is ripe to be scaled up, in particular through integration within national priority health programmes. India and China need to invest in increasing demand for services through active engagement with the community, to strengthen service user leadership and ensure that the content and delivery of mental health programmes are culturally and contextually appropriate.


PubMed | Sangath, Tata Trusts, Prakriti, Global Health Corps and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: The lancet. Psychiatry | Year: 2017

VISHRAM was a community-based mental health programme with the goal of addressing the mental health risk factors for suicide in people from 30 villages in the Amravati district in Vidarbha, central India. We aimed to assess whether implementation of VISHRAM was associated with an increase in the proportion of people with depression who sought treatment (contact coverage).A core strategy of VISHRAM was to increase the demand for care by enhancing mental health literacy and to improve the supply of evidence-based interventions for depression and alcohol-use disorders. Intervention for depression was led by community-based workers and non-specialist counsellors and done in collaboration with facility-based general physicians and psychiatrists. From Dec 25, 2013, to March 10, 2014, before VISHRAM was introduced, we did a baseline cross-sectional survey of adults randomly selected from the electoral roll (baseline survey population). The structured interview was administered by field researchers independent of the VISHRAM intervention and included questions about sociodemographic characteristics, health-care service use, depression (measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire [PHQ]-9), and mental health literacy. 18 months after VISHRAM was enacted, we repeated sampling methods to select a separate population of adults (18 month survey population) and administered the same survey. The primary outcome was change in contact coverage with VISHRAM, defined as the difference in the proportion of individuals with depression (PHQ-9 score >9) who sought treatment for symptoms of depression between the baseline and the 18 month survey population. Secondary outcomes were whether the distribution of coverage was equitable, the type of services sought, and mental health literacy.1887 participants completed the 18 month survey interview between Sept 18, and Oct 8, 2015. The contact coverage for current depression was six-times higher in the 18 month survey population (272%, 95% CI 214-337) than in the baseline survey population (43%, 15-71). Contact coverage was equitably distributed across sex, education, income, religion, and caste. Most providers consulted for care were general physicians. We observed significant improvements in a range of mental health literacy indicators, for example, conceptualisation of depression as a mental health problem and the intention to seek care for depression.A grass-roots community-based programme in rural India was associated with substantial increase in equitable contact coverage for depression and improved mental health literacy. It is now crucially important to translate this knowledge into real-world practice by scaling-up this programme through the National Mental Health Programme in India.Tata Trusts.


PubMed | Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and U.S. National Cancer Institute
Type: | Journal: Oral oncology | Year: 2016

Although oral cancers are generally preceded by a well-established pre-cancerous stage, there is a lack of well-defined clinical and morphological criteria to detect and signal progression from pre-cancer to malignant tumours. We conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic biomarker predicting progression. We identified all relevant human studies published in English prior to 30th April 2015 that examined DNA methylation (%) in oral pre-cancer by searching PubMed, Web-of-Science and Embase databases using combined key-searches. Twenty-one studies (18-cross-sectional; 3-longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion in the review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 156 affected cases. Eligible studies examined promoter region hyper-methylation of tumour suppressor genes in pathways including cell-cycle-control (n=15), DNA-repair (n=7), cell-cycle-signalling (n=4) and apoptosis (n=3). Hyper-methylated loci reported in three or more studies included p16, p14, MGMT and DAPK. Two longitudinal studies reported greater p16 hyper-methylation in pre-cancerous lesions transformed to malignancy compared to lesions that regressed (57-63.6% versus 8-32.1%; p<0.01). The one study that explored epigenome-wide methylation patterns reported three novel hyper-methylated loci (TRHDE; ZNF454; KCNAB3). The majority of reviewed studies were small, cross-sectional studies with poorly defined control groups and lacking validation. Whilst limitations in sample size and study design preclude definitive conclusions, current evidence suggests a potential utility of DNA methylation patterns as a diagnostic biomarker for oral pre-cancer progression. Robust studies such as large epigenome-wide methylation explorations of oral pre-cancer with longitudinal tracking are needed to validate the currently reported signals and identify new risk-loci and the biological pathways of disease progression.


Regan M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Gater R.,University of Manchester | Rahman A.,University of Liverpool | Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Patel V.,Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2015

Investment in research on the prevention and treatment of mental health disorders is disproportionately low in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) relative to the disease burden. Scaling-up mental health research in the EMR could generate enormous returns in terms of reducing disability, improving outcomes and preventing premature death, through early diagnosis, better management and community-based rehabilitation. EMR countries must therefore work to identify research priorities, mobilize resources, develop human and infrastructure capacities and institutionalize use of research findings to guide development of policies and service delivery models. Several key strategic interventions for EMR Member States are recommended: adopt a prioritized national mental health research agenda; systematically map national and international research funding to identify and secure resources to support the implementation of the agenda; strengthen national capacity to undertake prioritized research; periodically map research output in mental health; and foster dialogue between researchers and policy-makers/programme managers. © 2015, World Health Organization. All rights reserved.


Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Patel V.,Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries | Chatterji S.,World Health Organization
Health Affairs | Year: 2015

Mental disorders such as depression and alcohol use disorders often co-occur with other common noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Furthermore, noncommunicable diseases are frequently encountered in patients with severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The pathways underlying the comorbidity of mental disorders and noncommunicable diseases are complex. For example, mental and physical noncommunicable diseases may have common environmental risk factors such as unhealthy lifestyles, and treatments for one condition may have side effects that increase the risk of another condition. Building on the robust evidence base for effective treatments for a range of mental disorders, there is now a growing evidence base for how such treatments can be integrated into the care of people with noncommunicable diseases. The best-established delivery model is a team approach that features a nonspecialist case manager who coordinates care with primary care physicians and specialists. This approach maximizes efficiencies in person-centered care, which are essential for achieving universal health coverage for both noncommunicable diseases and mental disorders. A number of research gaps remain, but there is sufficient evidence for policy makers to immediately implement measures to integrate mental health and noncommunicable disease care in primary care platforms. © 2015 Project HOPE- The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.


PubMed | State Health Resource Center, Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi, Research Triangle Institute Global Pvt. Ltd, Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries and Honorary Secretary
Type: | Journal: Breast cancer : basic and clinical research | Year: 2016

Globally, breast cancer (BC) has become the leading cause of mortality in women. Awareness and early detection can curb the growing burden of BC and are the first step in the battle against BC. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the awareness and perceived barriers concerning the early detection of BC.A total of 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted during May 2013-March 2014. Pre-existing themes were used to conduct FGDs; each FGD group consisted of an average of ~10 women (aged 18-70 years) who came to participate in a BC awareness workshop. All FGDs were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were inductively analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Based on emerged codes and categories, thematic analysis was done, and theory was developed using the grounded theory approach.Data were analyzed in three major themes: i) knowledge and perception about BC; ii) barriers faced by women in the early presentation of BC; and iii) healthcare-seeking behavior. The findings revealed that shyness, fear, and posteriority were the major behavioral barriers in the early presentation of BC. Erroneously, pain was considered as an initial symptom of BC by most women. Financial constraint was also mentioned as a cause for delay in accessing treatment. Social stigma that breast problems reflect bad character of women also contributed in hiding BC symptoms.Lack of BC awareness was prevalent, especially in low socioeconomic class. Womens ambivalence in prioritizing their own health and social and behavioral hurdles should be addressed by BC awareness campaigns appropriately suited for various levels of social class.


Collins P.Y.,National Health Research Institute | Musisi S.,Makerere University | Frehywot S.,George Washington University | Patel V.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Patel V.,Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries
Global Health Action | Year: 2015

The 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study points to a changing landscape in which non-communicable diseases, such as mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders, account for an increasing proportion of premature mortality and disability globally. Despite evidence of the need for care, a remarkable deficit of providers for MNS disorder service delivery persists in sub-Saharan Africa. This critical workforce can be developed from a range of non-specialist and specialist health workers who have access to evidence-based interventions, whose roles, and the associated tasks, are articulated and clearly delineated, and who are equipped to master and maintain the competencies associated with providing MNS disorder care. In 2012, the Neuroscience Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a meeting of key stakeholders in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss a set of candidate core competencies for the delivery of mental health and neurological care, focusing specifically on depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders. This article discusses the candidate core competencies for non-specialist health workers and the complexities of implementing core competencies in low- and middle-income country settings. Sub-Saharan Africa, however, has the potential to implement novel training initiatives through university networks and through structured processes that engage ministries of health. Finally, we outline challenges associated with implementing competencies in order to sustain a workforce capable of delivering quality services for people with MNS disorders. © 2015 Pamela Y. Collins et al.


Agrawal S.,Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries | Fledderjohann J.,University of Oxford
BMJ Open | Year: 2016

Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PEandE) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15-49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PEandE were obtained from 39657 women who had a live birth in the 5years preceding the survey. The association between PEandE and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PEandE in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PEandE symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PEandE was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. © 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited.


PubMed | University of Oxford and Center for Chronic Conditions and Injuries
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ open | Year: 2016

Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life.We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women.Cross-sectional study.India.Data from Indias third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005-2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15-49years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39657 women who had a live birth in the 5years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region.The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics.HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting.

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