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Columbus, OH, United States

Guan S.,University of Houston | Shen R.,University of Houston | Lafortune T.,University of Houston | Tiao N.,University of Houston | And 3 more authors.
Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2011

The development of new therapies for ependymoma is dramatically limited by the absence of optimal in vivo and in vitro models. Successful ependymoma treatment requires a profound understanding of the disease's biological characteristics. This study focuses on the establishment and characterization of in vivo and in vitro models of ependymoma to study the molecular pathways necessary for growth and progression in ependymoma. In addition, this study also emphasizes the use of these models for therapeutic intervention of ependymomas. We established optimal conditions for the long-term growth of 2 tumor xenografts and cultures of 2 human ependymoma cell lines. This study also describes the establishment of in vivo models. Histopathologic features of tumors from both intracranial and subcutaneous sites in mice revealed perivascular pseudorosettes and ependymal rosettes, which are typical morphologic features of ependymoma similar to those observed in human specimens. The in vitro models revealed glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin expression, and ultrastructural studies demonstrated numerous microvilli, caveolae, and microfilaments commonly seen in human ependymoma. Tostudy signaling pathway alterations in ependymoma, we profiled established ependymomamodels with Western blot analysis that demonstrated aberrant activation mainly of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways. Targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways with small molecule inhibitors showed growth inhibitory effects. These models can also be used to study the standard therapies used for ependymomas, as shown by some of the drugs used in this study. Therefore, the models developed will assist in the biological studies and preclinical drug screening for ependymomas. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Bhagwat S.V.,OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Gokhale P.C.,OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Crew A.P.,OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. | Cooke A.,OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics | Year: 2011

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, and mTOR is a clinically validated target. mTOR forms two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, metabolism, proliferation, and survival. Rapamycin and its analogues partially inhibit mTOR through allosteric binding to mTORC1, but not mTORC2, and have shown clinical utility in certain cancers. Here, we report the preclinical characterization of OSI-027, a selective and potent dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with biochemical IC50 values of 22 nmol/L and 65 nmol/L, respectively. OSI-027 shows more than 100-fold selectivity for mTOR relative to PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ, and DNA-PK. OSI-027 inhibits phosphorylation of the mTORC1 substrates 4E-BP1 and S6K1 as well as the mTORC2 substrate AKT in diverse cancer models in vitro and in vivo. OSI-027 and OXA-01 (close analogue of OSI-027) potently inhibit proliferation of several rapamycin-sensitive and -insensitive nonengineered and engineered cancer cell lines and also, induce cell death in tumor cell lines with activated PI3K-AKT signaling. OSI-027 shows concentration-dependent pharmacodynamic effects on phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and AKT in tumor tissue with resulting tumor growth inhibition. OSI-027 shows robust antitumor activity in several different human xenograft models representing various histologies. Furthermore, in COLO 205 and GEO colon cancer xenograft models, OSI-027 shows superior efficacy compared with rapamycin. Our results further support the important role of mTOR as a driver of tumor growth and establish OSI-027 as a potent anticancer agent. OSI-027 is currently in phase I clinical trials in cancer patients. ©2011 AACR. Source

Basappa,Hokkaido University | Basappa,Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology | Basappa,Bangalore University | Sugahara K.,Hokkaido University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The angiogenic process is controlled by variety of factors of which the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway plays a major role. A series of heparan sulfate mimetic small molecules targeting VEGF/VEGFR pathway has been synthesized. Among them, compound 8 (2-butyl-5-chloro-3-(4-nitro-benzyl)-3H-imidazole-4-carbaldehyde) was identified as a significant binding molecule for the heparin-binding domain of VEGF, determined by high-throughput-surface plasmon resonance assay. The data predicted strong binding of compound 8 with VEGF which may prevent the binding of VEGF to its receptor. We compared the structure of compound 8 with heparan sulfate (HS), which have in common the functional ionic groups such as sulfate, nitro and carbaldehyde that can be located in similar positions of the disaccharide structure of HS. Molecular docking studies predicted that compound 8 binds at the heparin binding domain of VEGF through strong hydrogen bonding with Lys-30 and Gln-20 amino acid residues, and consistent with the prediction, compound 8 inhibited binding of VEGF to immobilized heparin. In vitro studies showed that compound 8 inhibits the VEGF-induced proliferation migration and tube formation of mouse vascular endothelial cells, and finally the invasion of a murine osteosarcoma cell line (LM8G7) which secrets high levels of VEGF. In vivo, these effects produce significant decrease of tumor burden in an experimental model of liver metastasis. Collectively, these data indicate that compound 8 may prevent tumor growth through a direct effect on tumor cell proliferation and by inhibition of endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis mediated by VEGF. In conclusion, compound 8 may normalize the tumor vasculature and microenvironment in tumors probably by inhibiting the binding of VEGF to its receptor. © 2012 Basappa et al. Source

Houghton P.J.,Center for Childhood Cancer | Bid H.K.,Center for Childhood Cancer
Sarcoma | Year: 2011

Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis constitute two processes in the formation of new blood vessels and are essential for progression of solid tumors. Consequently, targeting angiogenesis, and to a lesser extent vasculogenesis, has become a major focus in cancer drug development. Angiogenesis inhibitors are now being tested in pediatric populations whereas inhibitors of vasculogenesis are in an earlier stage of development. Despite the initial enthusiasm for targeting angiogenesis for treatment of cancer, clinical trials have shown only incremental increases in survival, and agents have been largely cytostatic rather than inducing tumor regressions. Consequently, the role of such therapeutic approaches in the context of curative intent for childhood sarcomas is less clear. Here we review the literature on blood vessel formation in sarcomas with a focus on pediatric sarcomas and developments in targeting angiogenesis for treatment of these rare cancers. Copyright © 2011 Hemant K. Bid and Peter J. Houghton. Source

Cam H.,Center for Childhood Cancer | Cam H.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Easton J.B.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | High A.,The Hartwell Center for Biotechnology | And 2 more authors.
Molecular Cell | Year: 2010

The mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) coordinates cell growth and metabolism, acting as a restriction point under stress conditions such as low oxygen tension (hypoxia). Hypoxia suppresses mTORC1 signaling. However, the signals by which hypoxia suppresses mTORC1 are only partially understood, and a direct link between hypoxia-driven physiological stress and the regulation of mTORC1 signaling is unknown. Here we show that hypoxia results in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) on serine696 and mediates downregulation of mTORC1 signaling. Deregulation of these pathways in pediatric solid tumor xenografts suggests a link between mTORC1 dysregulation and solid tumor development and points to an important role for hypoxic regulation of mTORC1 activity in tumor development. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. Source

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