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Timal S.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Hoischen A.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Lehle L.,University of Regensburg | Adamowicz M.,The Childrens Memorial Health Institute | And 15 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

Congenital disorders of glycosylation type I (CDG-I) form a growing group of recessive neurometabolic diseases. Identification of disease genes is compromised by the enormous heterogeneity in clinical symptoms and the large number of potential genes involved. Until now, gene identification included the sequential application of biochemical methods in blood samples and fibroblasts. In genetically unsolved cases, homozygosity mapping has been applied in consanguineous families. Altogether, this time-consuming diagnostic strategy led to the identification of defects in 17 different CDG-I genes. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) in combination with the knowledge of the protein N-glycosylation pathway for gene identification in our remaining group of six unsolved CDG-I patients from unrelated non-consanguineous families. Exome variants were prioritized based on a list of 76 potential CDG-I candidate genes, leading to the rapid identification of one known and two novel CDG-I gene defects. These included the first X-linked CDG-I due to a de novo mutation in ALG13, and compound heterozygous mutations in DPAGT1, together the first two steps in dolichol-PP-glycan assembly, and mutations in PGM1 in two cases, involved in nucleotide sugar biosynthesis. The pathogenicity of the mutations was confirmed by showing the deficient activity of the corresponding enzymes in patient fibroblasts. Combined with these results, the gene defect has been identified in 98% of our CDG-I patients. Our results implicate the potential of WES to unravel disease genes in the CDG-I in newly diagnosed singleton families. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Himmelreich N.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine and Center for Metabolic Diseases Heidelberg | Kaufmann L.T.,University of Heidelberg | Steinbeisser H.,University of Heidelberg | Korner C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine and Center for Metabolic Diseases Heidelberg | Thiel C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine and Center for Metabolic Diseases Heidelberg
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease | Year: 2015

Reduced phosphomannomutase 2 activity in man leads to hypoglycosylation of glycoconjugates causing PMM2-CDG, the most common type of congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here we show that an antisense morpholino-mediated knockdown of the Xenopus laevis phosphomannomutase 2 gene provoked a general underglycosylation in frog embryos, which led to an altered phenotype and reduced glycosylation of Wnt5a as member of the non-canonical Wnt signalling. Loss of function experiments in hemi-sectioned embryos proved that due to the phosphomannomutase 2 knockdown expression of the Wnt5a/Ror2 target gene paraxial protocadherin was significantly decreased. Regarding the expression of paraxial protocadherin, a gain of function could only be achieved by injections of wnt5a and ror2 in dorsal neighbouring blastomeres, while a parallel injection of phosphomannomutase 2 morpholino led to a significant reduced level of expression. Our data show for the first time that a knockdown of phosphomannomutase 2 influences in vivo the non-canonical Wnt signalling during early embryogenesis. © 2015, SSIEM. Source

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