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Lu L.,Yeshiva University | Hou X.,Yeshiva University | Shi S.,Yeshiva University | Shi S.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry

Mammalian Notch receptors require modification by fucose on epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of their extracellular domain to respond optimally to signal induction by canonical Notch ligands. Inactivation of the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter Slc35c1 in mouse or human does not cause marked defects in Notch signaling during development, and shows milder fucosylation defects than those observed in mice unable to synthesize GDP-fucose, indicating the existence of another mechanism for GDP-fucose transport into the secretory pathway. We show here that fibroblasts from mice or humans lacking Slc35c1 exhibit robust Notch signaling in co-culture signaling assays. A potential candidate for a second GDP-fucose transporter is the related gene Slc35c2. Overexpression of Slc35c2 reduces expression of the fucosylated epitopes Lewis X and sialylated Lewis X in CHO cells, indicating competition with Slc35c1. The fucosylation of a Notch1 EGF repeat fragment that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum was increased in CHO transfectants overexpressing Slc35c2. In CHO cells with low levels of Slc35c2, both Delta1- and Jagged1-induced Notch signaling were reduced, and the fucosylation of a Notch1 fragment was also decreased. Immunofluorescence microscopy of rat intestinal epithelial cells and HeLa cells, and analysis of rat liver membrane fractions showed that Slc35c2 is primarily colocalized with markers of the cis-Golgi network and endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). The combined results suggest that Slc35c2 is either a GDP-fucose transporter that competes with Slc35c1 for GDP-fucose, or a factor that otherwise enhances the fucosylation of Notch and is required for optimal Notch signaling in mammalian cells. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Thiel C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine | Korner C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine
Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease

Glycoprotein biosynthesis describes the process of co- and posttranslational attachment of sugar chains to proteins, a process that has been found in nearly all known organisms. Human deficiencies evoked by mutations in the glycosylation pathway of glycoproteins lead to congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), a rapidly expanding group of autosomal recessive inherited metabolic diseases with multisystemic phenotypes that are mostly combined with severe neurological impairment. Although investigations on new types of CDG have proceeded rapidly in recent years, the correlation between inaccurate protein glycosylation and pathological loss of functionality of distinct organ systems remains widely unknown, and therapeutics for the patients are mostly not available. Therefore, mouse models provide an outstanding helpful tool for investigations on different aspects of glycosylation deficiencies that cannot be performed in patients or cell culture. This review focuses on existing mouse models generated for the types of CDG that affect the N-glycosylation pathway. © 2011 SSIEM and Springer. Source

Ozyurt J.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Thiel C.M.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Lorenzen A.,Carl von Ossietzky University | Lorenzen A.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics

Objective To test memory performance and executive functions in patients with childhood craniopharyngioma and hypothalamic involvement. Study design Using standardized neuropsychological tests, we compared cognitive performance in a group of 15 patients with childhood craniopharyngioma and known hypothalamic involvement and a group of 24 age- and intelligence-matched control subjects. In addition, we compared individual patients' results with normative data to detect abnormal performance in the clinically relevant range. Within the patient group, we further tested whether the grade of hypothalamic involvement had an impact on cognitive performance and quality of life. Results Relative to healthy controls, the patients demonstrated significantly lower performance scores in tests of memory and executive functioning. On the individual performance level, delayed recall performance was severely impaired in one-third of the patients. Compared with patients with low-grade hypothalamic involvement, those with high-grade hypothalamic involvement showed worse performance in executive functions and reduced functional capabilities for daily life actions, indicating lower quality of life. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that hypothalamic involvement is related to impairments in memory and executive functioning in patients with childhood craniopharyngioma and indicate that a high grade of hypothalamic involvement is related to worse outcomes. © 2014 Mosby Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Thiel C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine | Korner C.,Center for Child and Adolescent Medicine
Glycoconjugate Journal

Inborn errors in glycoconjugate biosynthesis termed 'Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation' (CDG) comprise a rapidly expanding group of metabolic diseases in man. Up till now more than 60 different inherited disorders in N- and O-glycosylation pathways have been identified. They affect the biosynthesis of glycan moieties linked to proteins as well as lipids. Due to failures in protein glycosylation, CDG patients suffer from multi systemic disorders, which mostly present with severe psychomotor and mental retardations, muscular impairment, ataxia, failure to thrive and developmental delay. Although improved biochemical and genetic investigations led to identification of a variety of new molecular defects in glycoconjugate biosynthesis, effective therapies for most types of the CDG are so far not available. Therefore, intensive investigations on treatment options for this group of diseases have been carried out in recent years. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Guillard M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Morava E.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Van Delft F.L.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Hague R.,Royal Hospital for Sick Children | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry

BACKGROUND: Determination of the genetic defect in patients with a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) is challenging because of the wide clinical presentation, the large number of gene products involved, and the occurrence of secondary causes of underglycosylation. Transferrin isoelectric focusing has been the method of choice for CDG screening; however, improved methods are required for the molecular diagnosis of patients with CDG type II. METHODS: Plasma samples with a typical transferrin isofocusing profile were analyzed. N-glycans were released from these samples by PNGase F [peptide-N4-(acetyl-β-glucosaminyl)-asparagine amidase] digestion, permethylated and purified, and measured on a MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer. A set of 38 glycans was used for quantitative comparison and to establish reference intervals for such glycan features as the number of antennae, the level of truncation, and fucosylation. Plasma N-glycans from control individuals, patients with known CDG type II defects, and patients with a secondary cause of underglycosylation were analyzed. RESULTS: CDGs due to mannosyl (α-1,6-)-glycoprotein β-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (MGAT2), β-1, 4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1), and SLC35C1 (a GDP-fucose transporter) defects could be diagnosed directly from the N-glycan profile. CDGs due to defects in proteins involved in Golgi trafficking, such as subunit 7 of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex (COG7) and subunit V0 a2 of the lysosomal H+-transporting ATPase (ATP6V0A2) caused a loss of triantennary N-glycans and an increase of truncated structures. Secondary causes with liver involvement were characterized by increased fucosylation, whereas the presence of plasma sialidase produced isolated undersialylation. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI ion trap analysis of plasma N-glycans documents features that discriminate between primary and secondary causes of underglycosylation and should be applied as the first step in the diagnostic track of all patients with an unsolved CDG type II. © 2010 American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Source

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