Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

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Gimenez M.,University of Sao Paulo | Gimenez M.,Center for Cell Therapy | De Oliveira Souza V.C.,University of Sao Paulo | De Oliveira Souza V.C.,Center for Cell Therapy | And 10 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2010

Proteomic approaches have been useful for the identification of aberrantly expressed proteins in complex diseases such as cancer. These proteins are not only potential disease biomarkers, but also targets for therapy. The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in diffuse astrocytoma grade II, anaplastic astrocytoma grade III and glioblastoma multiforme grade IV in human tumor samples and in non-neoplastic brain tissue as control using 2-DE and MS. Tumor and control brain tissue dissection was guided by histological hematoxylin/eosin tissue sections to provide more than 90% of tumor cells and astrocytes. Six proteins were detected as up-regulated in higher grade astrocytomas and the most important finding was nucleophosmin (NPM) (p<0.05), whereas four proteins were down-regulated, among them raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) (p<0.05). We report here for the first time the alteration of NPM and RKIP expression in brain cancer. Our focus on these proteins was due to the fact that they are involved in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, known for their contribution to the development and progression of gliomas. The proteomic data for NPM and RKIP were confirmed by Western blot, quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Due to the participation of NPM and RKIP in uncontrolled proliferation and evasion of apoptosis, these proteins are likely targets for drug development. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Picanco-Castro V.,Center for Cell Therapy | Russo-Carbolante E.,University of Sao Paulo | Covas D.T.,Center for Cell Therapy | Covas D.T.,University of Sao Paulo
Cellular Reprogramming | Year: 2012

Human endothelial cells (ECs) have the ability to make up the lining of blood vessels. These cells are also capable of neovascularization and revascularization and have been applied in various clinical situations. With the aim of understanding the effect of NANOG superexpression on ECs, we transduced the Nanog gene into the ECs. Nanog is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and is essential for pluripotency and self-renewal. However, Nanog can also be expressed in somatic stem cells, and this gene is related to great expansion capacity in vitro. We found that ECs expressing Nanog showed expression of other stemness genes, such as Sox2, FoxD3, Oct4, Klf4, c-myc, and β-catenin, that are not normally expressed or are expressed at very low levels in ECs. Nanog is one of the stemness genes that can activate other stemness genes, and the upregulation of the Nanog gene seems to be critical for reprogramming cells. In this study, the introduction of Nanog was sufficient to alter the expression of key genes of the pluripotent pathway. The functional importance of Nanog for altering the cell expression profile and morphology was clearly demonstrated by our results. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Gimenez M.,University of Sao Paulo | Gimenez M.,Center for Cell Therapy | Marie S.K.,University of Sao Paulo | Oba-Shinjo S.M.,University of Sao Paulo | And 10 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2012

Previously, we reported that nucleophosmin (NPM) was increased in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). NPM is a phosphoprotein related to apoptosis, ribosome biogenesis, mitosis, and DNA repair, but details about its function remain unclear. We treated U87MG and A172 cells with small interference RNA (siRNA) and obtained a reduction of 80% in NPM1 expression. Knockdown at the protein level was evident after the 4th day and was maintained until the 7th day of transfection that was investigated by quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags. The comparison of proteomic analysis of NPM1-siRNA against controls allowed the identification of 14 proteins, two proteins showed increase and 12 presented a reduction of expression levels. Gene ontology assigned most of the hypoexpressed proteins to apoptosis regulation, including GRP78. NPM1 silencing did not impair cell proliferation until the 7th day after transfection, but sensitized U87MG cells to temozolomide (TMZ), culminating with an increase in cell death and provoking at a later period a reduction of colony formation. In a large data set of GBM patients, both GRP78 and NPM1 genes were upregulated and presented a tendency to shorter overall survival time. In conclusion, NPM proved to participate in the apoptotic process, sensitizing TMZ-treated U87MG and A172 cells to cell death, and in association with upregulation of GRP78 may be helpful as a predictive factor of poor prognosis in GBM patients. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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