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Saito H.,University of Michigan | Okita K.,Center for Cell Research and Application | Fusaki N.,Keio University | Fusaki N.,DNAVEC Corporation | And 3 more authors.
Stem Cells International | Year: 2016

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells of patients hold great promise for autologous cell therapies. One of the possible applications of iPSCs is to use them as a cell source for producing autologous lymphocytes for cell-based therapy against cancer. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that express programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) are tumor-reactive T cells, and adoptive cell therapy with autologous TILs has been found to achieve durable complete response in selected patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, we describe the derivation of human iPSCs from melanoma TILs expressing high level of PD-1 by Sendai virus-mediated transduction of the four transcription factors, OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC. TIL-derived iPSCs display embryonic stem cell-like morphology, have normal karyotype, express stem cell-specific surface antigens and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, and have the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in vivo. A wide variety of T cell receptor gene rearrangement patterns in TIL-derived iPSCs confirmed the heterogeneity of T cells infiltrating melanomas. The ability to reprogram TILs containing patient-specific tumor-reactive repertoire might allow the generation of patient- and tumor-specific polyclonal T cells for cancer immunotherapy. © 2016 Hidehito Saito et al.

Tanaka N.,Kyoto University | Izawa K.,Kyoto University | Saito M.K.,Center for Cell Research and Application | Sakuma M.,Kyoto University | And 22 more authors.
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2011

Objective Chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular (CINCA) syndrome, also known as neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), is a dominantly inherited systemic autoinflammatory disease. Although heterozygous germline gain-of-function NLRP3 mutations are a known cause of this disease, conventional genetic analyses fail to detect disease-causing mutations in ∼40% of patients. Since somatic NLRP3 mosaicism has been detected in several mutation-negative NOMID/CINCA syndrome patients, we undertook this study to determine the precise contribution of somatic NLRP3 mosaicism to the etiology of NOMID/CINCA syndrome. Methods An international case-control study was performed to detect somatic NLRP3 mosaicism in NOMID/CINCA syndrome patients who had shown no mutation during conventional sequencing. Subcloning and sequencing of NLRP3 was performed in these mutation-negative NOMID/CINCA syndrome patients and their healthy relatives. Clinical features were analyzed to identify potential genotype-phenotype associations. Results Somatic NLRP3 mosaicism was identified in 18 of the 26 patients (69.2%). Estimates of the level of mosaicism ranged from 4.2% to 35.8% (mean ± SD 12.1 ± 7.9%). Mosaicism was not detected in any of the 19 healthy relatives (18 of 26 patients versus 0 of 19 relatives; P < 0.0001). In vitro functional assays indicated that the detected somatic NLRP3 mutations had disease-causing functional effects. No differences in NLRP3 mosaicism were detected between different cell lineages. Among nondescript clinical features, a lower incidence of mental retardation was noted in patients with somatic mosaicism. Genotype-matched comparison confirmed that patients with somatic NLRP3 mosaicism presented with milder neurologic symptoms. Conclusion Somatic NLRP3 mutations were identified in 69.2% of patients with mutation-negative NOMID/CINCA syndrome. This indicates that somatic NLRP3 mosaicism is a major cause of NOMID/CINCA syndrome. © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

Nakajima-Koyama M.,Kyoto University | Nakajima-Koyama M.,Center for Cell Research and Application | Lee J.,Kyoto University | Ohta S.,Kyoto University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2015

It remains controversial whether the routes from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are related to the reverse order of normal developmental processes. Specifically, it remains unaddressed whether or not the differentiated cells become iPSCs through their original tissue stem cell-like state. Previous studies analyzing the reprogramming process mostly used fibroblasts; however, the stem cell characteristics of fibroblasts made it difficult to address this. Here, we generated iPSCs from mouse astrocytes, a type of glial cells, by three (OCT3/4, KLF4, and SOX2), two (OCT3/4 and KLF4), or four (OCT3/4, KLF4, and SOX2 plus c-MYC) factors. Sox1, a neural stem cell (NSC)-specific transcription factor, is transiently up-regulated during reprogramming, and Sox1-positive cells become iPSCs. The up-regulation of Sox1 is essential for OCT3/4- and KLF4- induced reprogramming. Genome-wide analysis revealed that the gene expression profile of Sox1-expressing intermediatestate cells resembles that of NSCs. Furthermore, the intermediate- state cells are able to generate neurospheres, which can differentiate into both neurons and glial cells. Remarkably, during fibroblast reprogramming, neither Sox1 up-regulation nor an increase in neurogenic potential occurs. Our results thus demonstrate that astrocytes are reprogrammed through an NSC-like state. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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