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Ballantyne C.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Ballantyne C.M.,Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention | Davidson M.H.,University of Chicago | MacDougall D.E.,Esperion Therapeutics | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the lipid-altering efficacy and safety of ETC-1002 in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. Background ETC-1002 is a small molecule that modulates pathways of cholesterol, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism and may have therapeutic benefits in treating hypercholesterolemia and other cardiometabolic risk factors. Methods This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial evaluated patients (n = 177) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (130 to 220 mg/dl), who were stratified by baseline triglycerides (not elevated [<150 mg/dl] or elevated [150-<400 mg/dl]) and randomized to receive 40, 80, or 120 mg of ETC-1002 or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Outcomes included changes in LDL-C (primary endpoint), other lipids, and cardiometabolic risk factors; and safety. Results ETC-1002 40, 80, and 120 mg lowered least-squares mean ± SE LDL-C levels by 17.9 ± 2.2%, 25.0 ± 2.1%, and 26.6 ± 2.2%, respectively, versus a reduction of 2.1 ± 2.2% with placebo (all, p < 0.0001); LDL-C lowering was similar between the subgroups with nonelevated and elevated triglycerides. ETC-1002 also lowered non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), apolipoprotein B, and LDL particle number (all, p < 0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner; HDL-C and triglyceride levels were relatively unchanged. Post-hoc analyses suggest that ETC-1002 may have favorable effects on other cardiometabolic risk factors. The ETC-1002 and placebo groups did not demonstrate clinically meaningful differences in adverse events or other safety assessments. Conclusions ETC-1002 significantly lowered LDL-C levels up to 27% across a broad range of baseline triglycerides and was generally safe and well tolerated. ETC-1002 has a novel mechanism of action and may be useful for reducing LDL-C. (A Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of ETC-1002 in Subjects With Elevated Blood Cholesterol and Either Normal or Elevated Triglycerides; NCT01262638). © 2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Khan I.M.,Baylor College of Medicine | Dai Perrard X.-Y.,Baylor College of Medicine | Perrard J.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | Mansoori A.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2014

Objectives: High-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice is characterized by accumulation of αβ T cells in adipose tissue. However, the contribution of αβ T cells to obesity-induced inflammation of skeletal muscle, a major organ of glucose uptake, is unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of αβ T cells on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory state of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obesity. Furthermore, we investigated whether CD4+IFNγ+ (TH1) cells are involved in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction that accompanies obesity. Methods: Mice lacking αβ T cells (T cell receptor beta chain-deficient [TCRb-/-] mice) were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Obesity-induced skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. To investigate the effect of TH1 cells on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic functions, we injected 5×105 TH1 cells or PBS weekly over 12 weeks into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice. We also cultured C2C12 myofibers and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TH1-conditioned medium. Results: We showed that similar to adipose tissue, skeletal muscle of obese mice have higher αβ T cell content, including TH1 cells. TCRb-/- mice were protected against obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We also demonstrated suppressed macrophage infiltration and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of TCRb-/- mice on HFD compared to wild-type obese controls. Adoptive transfer of TH1 cells into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice resulted in increased skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and impaired glucose metabolism. TH1 cells directly impaired functions of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes invitro. Conclusions: We conclude that reduced adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation in obese TCRb-/- mice is partially attributable to the absence of TH1 cells. Our results suggest an important role of TH1 cells in regulating inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Lopez F.L.,University of Minnesota | Agarwal S.K.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | MacLehose R.F.,University of Minnesota | Soliman E.Z.,Wake forest University | And 5 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | Year: 2012

Background-Several cardiovascular risk factors have been associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Limited and inconsistent evidence exists on the association of blood lipid levels and lipid-lowering medication use with AF risk. Methods and Results-We analyzed 13 969 participants (25% African American, 45% men) free of AF at baseline from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), triglycerides, and total cholesterol were measured at baseline (1987-1989) and each of 3 follow-up visits. The incidence of AF was ascertained through 2007. The association of the use of statins and other lipid-lowering medications with AF was estimated in 13 044 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities participants attending visit 2 (1990 -1992), adjusting for covariates from the previous visit. During a median follow-up of 18.7 years, there were 1433 incident AF cases. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of AF associated with a 1-SD increase in lipid levels were as follows: HDLc, 0.97 (0.91-1.04); LDLc, 0.90 (0.85- 0.96); total cholesterol, 0.89 (0.84-0.95); and triglycerides, 1.00 (0.96 -1.04). Participants taking lipid-lowering medications had an adjusted HR (95% CI) of AF of 0.96 (0.82-1.13) compared with those not taking medications, whereas those taking statins had an adjusted HR of 0.91 (0.66 -1.25) compared with those taking other lipid-lowering medications. Conclusions-Higher levels of LDLc and total cholesterol were associated with a lower incidence of AF. However, HDLc and triglycerides were not independently associated with AF incidence. No association was found between the use of lipid-lowering medications and incident AF. © 2012 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Nambi V.,Baylor College of Medicine | Nambi V.,Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention | Chambless L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Folsom A.R.,University of Minnesota | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2010

Objectives: We evaluated whether carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and the presence or absence of plaque improved coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRF). Background: Traditional CHD risk prediction schemes need further improvement as the majority of the CHD events occur in the "low" and "intermediate" risk groups. On an ultrasound scan, CIMT and presence of plaque are associated with CHD, and therefore could potentially help improve CHD risk prediction. Methods: Risk prediction models (overall, and in men and women) considered included TRF only, TRF plus CIMT, TRF plus plaque, and TRF plus CIMT plus plaque. Model predictivity was determined by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) adjusted for optimism. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate 10-year CHD risk for each model, and the number of subjects reclassified was determined. Observed events were compared with expected events, and the net reclassification index was calculated. Results: Of 13,145 eligible subjects (5,682 men, 7,463 women), ∼23% were reclassified by adding CIMT plus plaque information. Overall, the CIMT plus TRF plus plaque model provided the most improvement in AUC, which increased from 0.742 (TRF only) to 0.755 (95% confidence interval for the difference in adjusted AUC: 0.008 to 0.017) in the overall sample. Similarly, the CIMT plus TRF plus plaque model had the best net reclassification index of 9.9% in the overall population. Sex-specific analyses are presented in the manuscript. Conclusions: Adding plaque and CIMT to TRF improves CHD risk prediction in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study. © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Source

Nambi V.,Baylor College of Medicine | Nambi V.,Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention | Chambless L.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | He M.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | And 5 more authors.
European Heart Journal | Year: 2012

Aims Carotid intimamedia thickness (CIMT) and plaque information can improve coronary heart disease (CHD) risk prediction when added to traditional risk factors (TRF). However, obtaining adequate images of all carotid artery segments (A-CIMT) may be difficult. Of A-CIMT, the common carotid artery intimamedia thickness (CCA-IMT) is relatively more reliable and easier to measure. We evaluated whether CCA-IMT is comparable to A-CIMT when added to TRF and plaque information in improving CHD risk prediction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Methods and Results Ten-year CHD risk prediction models using TRF alone, TRF A-CIMT plaque, and TRF CCA-IMT plaque were developed for the overall cohort, men, and women. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC), per cent individuals reclassified, net reclassification index (NRI), and model calibration by the GrønnesbyBorgan test were estimated. There were 1722 incident CHD events in 12 576 individuals over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. The AUC for TRF only, TRF A-CIMT plaque, and TRF CCA-IMT plaque models were 0.741, 0.754, and 0.753, respectively. Although there was some discordance when the CCA-IMT plaque-and A-CIMT plaque-based risk estimation was compared, the NRI and clinical NRI (NRI in the intermediate-risk group) when comparing the CIMT models with TRF-only model, per cent reclassified, and test for model calibration were not significantly different. Conclusion Coronary heart disease risk prediction can be improved by adding A-CIMT plaque or CCA-IMT plaque information to TRF. Therefore, evaluating the carotid artery for plaque presence and measuring CCA-IMT, which is easier and more reliable than measuring A-CIMT, provide a good alternative to measuring A-CIMT for CHD risk prediction. © 2011 The Author. Source

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