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Ahmad J.,Queens University of Belfast | Arthur K.,Queens University of Belfast | Maxwell P.,Center for Cancer Research and Cell Biology | Kennedy A.,Belfast Health and Social Care Trust | And 3 more authors.
Diseases of the Esophagus | Year: 2015

Summary: The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically over recent years and Barrett's esophagus is considered the most established risk factor for its development. Endoscopic surveillance of Barrett's esophagus is therefore recommended but hinges on histological interpretation of randomly taken biopsies which is poorly reproducible. The use of biomarkers presents an opportunity to improve our ability to risk-stratify these patients.We examined three biomarkers namely p504s, CD133, and Twist in the setting of Barrett's esophagus, low-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma to evaluate differential expression between benign, dysplastic, and malignant Barrett's tissue in an exploratory cross-sectional study. Twenty-five cases each of Barrett's esophagus, low-grade dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma were included along-with 25 cases of esophagectomy resections for Barrett's adenocarcinoma. The biomarkers were immunostained on automated Ventana® immunostainer. The biopsies were assessed for biomarker expression by two independent observers. Granular cytoplasmic staining of p504s was observed in dysplastic Barrett's biopsies and esophageal adenocarcinoma but not in Barrett's esophagus. Apical and membranous CD133 expression was also observed in dysplastic Barrett's and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nuclear Twist expression was seen predominantly in stromal cells. There was increased p504s expression in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma compared with controls. CD133 expression was detected for the first time in esophageal adenocarcinoma and dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Twist expression was not convincing enough to be labeled as Barrett's biomarker. p504s and CD133 have the potential to differentiate benign from malignant Barrett's tissue in this exploratory study. Their validity should be established in prospective longitudinal studies. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. Source

Emmert-Streib F.,Center for Cancer Research and Cell Biology | Glazko G.V.,University of Rochester
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

In this paper we discuss the dualism of gene networks and their role in systems biology. We argue that gene networks (1) can serve as a conceptual framework, forming a fundamental level of a phenomenological description, and (2) are a means to represent and analyze data. The latter point does not only allow a systems analysis but is even amenable for a direct approach to study biological function. Here we focus on the clarity of our main arguments and conceptual meaning of gene networks, rather than the causal inference of gene networks from data. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Source

Hamilton P.W.,Center for Cancer Research and Cell Biology
Diagnostic Histopathology | Year: 2010

The ability to take and process digital images is important in histopathology, cytopathology and pathology-centric research. In particular publishers demand that digital images are presented in a certain format. Since taking, processing and preparing digital images are often in the hands of the researcher, we should know how to handle digital images and prepare them for publication. This paper outlines the basic principles of digital imaging, what defines image resolution and how to prepare digital images for publication. Common pitfalls in preparing digital illustrations are reviewed together with the ethical constraints around the processing of scientific images. © 2010. Source

Foroni L.,London Health Sciences Center | Wilson G.,Sheffield Childrens NHS Foundation Trust | Gerrard G.,London Health Sciences Center | Mason J.,West Midlands Regional Genetics Laboratory | And 20 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2011

Molecular testing for the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most sensitive routine approach for monitoring the response to therapy of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia. In the context of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, the technique is most appropriate for patients who have achieved complete cytogenetic remission and can be used to define specific therapeutic milestones. To achieve this effectively, standardization of the laboratory procedures and the interpretation of results are essential. We present here consensus best practice guidelines for RT-qPCR testing, data interpretation and reporting that have been drawn up and agreed by a consortium of 21 testing laboratories in the United Kingdom and Ireland in accordance with the procedures of the UK Clinical Molecular Genetics Society. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Belli C.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Anand S.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Tassi G.,Brescia Hospital | Fennell D.,Center for Cancer Research and Cell Biology | And 2 more authors.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2010

Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a highly invasive tumor arising from the mesothelial cells of serosal surfaces. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been tested for the treatment of this disease and doublet cisplatin with antifolates has been demonstrated to have significant efficacy in Phase III studies. However, the benefit of these treatments remains poor and the median survival time of patients is low, ranging between 9 and 17 months. Targeted therapies are being developed in oncology and emerging evidence suggests that they offer disease control in several tumors. This article reviews the knowledge on the malignant pleural mesothelioma molecular pathway and focuses on results of clinical trials conducted on this devastating disease. © 2010 Expert Reviews Ltd. Source

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