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Oklahoma City, OK, United States

Rao C.V.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Patlolla J.M.R.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Cooma I.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Kawamori T.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition and Cancer

The present study explored the preventive effects of perilla oil, rich in α-linolenic acid, in rodent models of colon tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male F344 rats were fed diets containing 5% corn oil or 10 or 20% perilla oil. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were induced by azoxymethane (AOM) and colonic ACF were evaluated. In familial adenomatous polyposis mode, APCmin mice fed with 20% corn oil or perilla oil for 80 days and intestines were evaluated for polyps. Multiple colonic mucosal and polyp samples were assayed for the expression and activity of cyclooxygenase COX-isoforms. Dietary perilla oil produced a dose-dependent inhibition of AOM-induced colonic ACF formation (by 35-53%, P < 0.01-0.005) and reduced the number of foci with ≥4 crypts/focus (by 38-50%, P < 0.01-0.001) in F344 rats. Dietary perilla oil significantly inhibited development of small intestinal (>69%, P < 0.0001) and colon tumors (>52%, P < 0.03) in APCmin mice. Administration of perilla oil produced lower levels of type-2 prostaglandins (38-53%) from COX-activities in polyps of APCmin mice. These observations demonstrate that dietary perilla oil rich in ω-3 fatty acids possesses preventive activity against intestinal neoplastic lesions, both in FAP in genetically-predisposed tissues, as well as against chemically induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Janakiram N.B.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Mohammed A.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Zhang Y.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Brewer M.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Prevention Research

Estrogen receptor (ER)-β signaling is associated positively in colon tumor progression, whereas down-regulation or loss of function of retinoid X receptor (RXR)-α occurs in colon tumors. The chemopreventive efficacies of the estrogen antagonist raloxifene and the selective RXR agonist bexarotene were tested individually and in combination, during promotion and progression stages of colon tumorigenesis. Colon tumors were induced in male F344 rats with azoxymethane and at early adenoma stage, groups of rats (36 or 45 per group) were fed diets containing raloxifene (1.5 or 3 ppm), bexarotene (50 or 100 ppm), or their low-dose combinations for 40 weeks. Raloxifene or bexarotene alone significantly suppressed colon adenocarcinoma formation in terms of multiplicities (mean ± SE): control, 3.59 ± 0.25; 1.5 ppm raloxifene, 2.51 ± 0.29 (P < 0.004); 3 ppm raloxifene, 2.14 ± 0.28 (P < 0.0001); 50 ppm bexarotene, 2.25 ± 0.32 (P < 0.001); 100 ppm bexarotene, 2.1 ± 0.27 (P < 0.0001); and 1.5 ppm raloxifene + 50 ppm bexarotene, 1.57 ± 0.21 (P < 0.0001). The low-dose combination caused significant (56%) inhibition of adenocarcinomas as compared with control diet fed rats. Tumors exposed to raloxifene, bexarotene and/or the combination showed significant suppression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin D1, and b-catenin with an increased apoptotic cells (3-fold) and p21 expression (3.8-fold) as compared tumors of rats fed control diet. The combination of low doses of raloxifene and bexarotene significantly suppressed the progression of colonic adenomas to adenocarcinomas and may be useful for colon cancer prevention and/or treatment in high-risk individuals. © 2013 AACR. Source

Pathuri G.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Pathuri G.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Madka V.,Center for Cancer Prevention and Drug Development | Hedrick A.F.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Pharmaceutics

Aminopeptidase N (APN; CD13; EC is a zinc-dependent membrane-bound exopeptidase that catalyzes the removal of N-terminal amino acids from peptides. APN is known to be highly expressed on renal cortical proximal tubules. APN expression levels are markedly decreased under the influence of nephrotoxins and in the tumor regions of renal cancers. Thus, molecular imaging of kidney APN expression could provide pathophysiological information about kidneys noninvasively. Probestin is a potent APN inhibitor and binds to APN. Abdominal SPECT imaging was conducted at 1 h postinjection of 99mTc-probestin in a group of 12 UPII-SV40T transgenic and wild-type mice. UPII-SV40T mice spontaneously develop urothelial carcinoma in situ and invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) that invade kidneys. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry analysis were used to confirm the presence of tumor and to evaluate APN expression in kidney. Radioactivity in normal tissue regions of renal cortex was clearly visible in SPECT images, whereas tumor regions of renal cortex displayed significantly lower or no radioactivity uptake. Histopathological analysis of kidney sections showed normal morphology for both renal pelvic and cortical regions in wild-type mice and abnormal morphology in some transgenic mice. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining confirmed the presence of tumor in those abnormal regions. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney sections using anti-CD13 antibody showed significantly lower APN expression in tumor regions compared to normal regions. Results obtained in this study demonstrate the potential use of 99mTc-probestin SPECT as a novel technique for noninvasive imaging of kidney APN expression. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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