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Hunter S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Rowley S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Clouston D.,TissuPath | Li J.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | And 9 more authors.
Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations | Year: 2016

Objective: A family history of prostate cancer (PC) is a well-recognized high-risk factor for the development of clinically significant PC. To date, traditional linkage and association studies have identified only a limited number of genes and specific gene variants that account for only a small proportion of PC risk. To identify novel PC predisposition genes we performed whole-exome sequencing of PC-affected men from families with a significant history of PC. Methods and materials: Exome sequencing was performed on 5 PC-affected men from 3 families where there were multiple cases of PCs and where diagnostic testing returned a negative result for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Genotyping was performed for all potentially predisposing variants detected within each family on the affected and unaffected male participants. Results: Essential splice site, missense, and stop-lost variants were filtered against a recently published candidate gene list. A total of 19 truncating variants and 17 missense variants were identified for genotyping in all prostate-affected and unaffected male participants. In all, 3 missense variants, PCTP, MCRS1, and ATRIP, demonstrated complete segregation and 1 missense variant, PARP2, demonstrated partial segregation with PC. In addition, 3 truncating variants, CYP3A43, DOK3, and PLEKHH3, demonstrated complete segregation and 3 truncation mutations, HEATR5B, GPR124, and HKR1, demonstrated partial segregation with PC. No segregating variants between the 3 families were shared. Conclusions: In all, 10 truncating or missense variants showed either complete or partial segregation with PC in the relevant families. CYP3A43 and PARP2 variants have been shown to occur in other familial PCs and our findings add to the contribution that these variants potentially have in the risk and development of PC in BRCAX cases. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

Hunter S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Anglesio M.S.,University of British Columbia | Sharma R.,University of Sydney | Gilks C.B.,University of British Columbia | And 9 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: Serous ovarian carcinomas are the predominant epithelial ovarian cancer subtype and it has been widely believed that some or all of these may arise from precursors derived from the ovarian surface epithelium or fimbriae, although direct molecular evidence for this is limited. This study aimed to conduct copy number (CN) analysis using a series of benign and borderline serous ovarian tumors to identify underlying genomic changes that may be indicative of early events in tumorigenesis. Experimental Design: High resolution CN analysis was conducted on DNA from the epithelial and fibroblast components of a cohort of benign (N = 39) and borderline (N = 24) serous tumors using the Affymetrix OncoScan assay and SNP6.0 arrays. Results: CN aberrations were detected in the epithelium of only 2.9% (1 of 35) of serous cystadenomas and cystadenofibromas. In contrast, CN aberrations were detected in the epithelium of 67% (16 of 24) of the serous borderline tumors (SBT). Unexpectedly, CN aberrations were detected in the fibroblasts of 33% (13 of 39) of the benign serous tumors and in 15% (3 of 20) of the SBTs. Of the 16 cases withCNaberrations in the fibroblasts, 12 of these carried a gain of chromosome 12. Conclusions: Chromosome 12 trisomy has been previously identified in pure fibromas, supporting the concept that a significant proportion of benign serous tumors are in fact primary fibromas with an associated cystic mass. This is the first high resolution genomic analysis of benign serous ovarian tumors and has shown not only that the majority of benign serous tumors have no genetic evidence of epithelial neoplasia but that a significant proportion may be more accurately classified as primary fibromas. ©2011 AACR.

Hunter S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Anglesio M.S.,University of British Columbia | Ryland G.L.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Sharma R.,University of Western Sydney | And 21 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2015

Low grade serous ovarian tumours are a rare and under-characterised histological subtype of epithelial ovarian tumours, with little known of the molecular drivers and facilitators of tumorigenesis beyond classic oncogenic RAS/RAF mutations. With a move towards targeted therapies due to the chemoresistant nature of this subtype, it is pertinent to more fully characterise the genetic events driving this tumour type, some of which may influence response to therapy and/or development of drug resistance. We performed genome-wide high-resolution genomic copy number analysis (Affymetrix SNP6.0) and mutation hotspot screening (KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, ERBB2 and TP53) to compare a large cohort of ovarian serous borderline tumours (SBTs, n = 57) with low grade serous carcinomas (LGSCs, n = 19). Whole exome sequencing was performed for 13 SBTs, nine LGSCs and one mixed low/ high grade carcinoma. Copy number aberrations were detected in 61% (35/57) of SBTs, compared to 100% (19/19) of LGSCs. Oncogenic RAS/RAF/ERBB2 mutations were detected in 82.5% (47/57) of SBTs compared to 63% (12/19) of LGSCs, with NRAS mutations detected only in LGSC. Some copy number aberrations appeared to be enriched in LGSC, most significantly loss of 9p and homozygous deletions of the CDKN2A/2B locus. Exome sequencing identified BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, USP9X and EIF1AX as the most frequently mutated genes. We have identified markers of progression from borderline to LGSC and novel drivers of LGSC. USP9X and EIF1AX have both been linked to regulation of mTOR, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a key companion treatment for targeted therapy trials of MEK and RAF inhibitors.

Hunter S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Gorringe K.L.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Gorringe K.L.,University of Melbourne | Christie M.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | And 6 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Introduction: Mucinous tumors are the second most common form of epithelial ovarian tumor, yet the cell of origin for this histologic subtype remains undetermined. Although these tumors are thought to arise through a stepwise progression from benign cystadenoma to borderline tumor to invasive carcinoma, few studies have attempted to comprehensively characterize the genetic changes specific to this subtype or its precursors. Methods: To explore the spectrum of genomic alterations common to mucinous tumors we carried out high-resolution genome-wide copy number analysis, mutation screening by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry on a series of primary ovarian mucinous cystadenomas (n = 20) and borderline tumors (n = 22). Results: Integration of copy number data, targeted mutation screening of RAS/RAF pathway members and immunohistochemistry reveals that p16 loss and RAS/RAF pathway alterations are highly recurrent events that occur early during mucinous tumor development. The frequency of concurrence of these events was observed in 40% of benign cystadenomas and 68% of borderline tumors. Conclusions: This study is the largest and highest resolution analysis of mucinous benign and borderline tumors carried out to date and provides strong support for these lesions being precursors of primary ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma. The high level of uniformity in the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of mucinous ovarian tumors provides an opportunity for treatments targeting specific mutations and pathways. ©2012 AACR.

Hunter S.M.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Ryland G.L.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | Moss P.,Peter MacCallum Cancer Center | Gorringe K.L.,Center for Cancer Genomics and Predictive Medicine | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2014

Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

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