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Brand J.S.,Karolinska Institutet | Humphreys K.,Karolinska Institutet | Thompson D.J.,Center for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology | Li J.,Genome Institute of Singapore | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2014

Background Mammographic density is a strong heritable trait, but data on its genetic component are limited to area-based and qualitative measures. We studied the heritability of volumetric mammographic density ascertained by a fully-automated method and the association with breast cancer susceptibility loci. Methods Heritability of volumetric mammographic density was estimated with a variance component model in a sib-pair sample (N pairs = 955) of a Swedish screening based cohort. Associations with 82 established breast cancer loci were assessed in an independent sample of the same cohort (N = 4025 unrelated women) using linear models, adjusting for age, body mass index, and menopausal status. All tests were two-sided, except for heritability analyses where one-sided tests were used. Results After multivariable adjustment, heritability estimates (standard error) for percent dense volume, absolute dense volume, and absolute nondense volume were 0.63 (0.06) and 0.43 (0.06) and 0.61 (0.06), respectively (all P <. 001). Percent and absolute dense volume were associated with rs10995190 (ZNF365; P = 9.0 × 10-6 and 8.9 × 10-7, respectively) and rs9485372 (TAB2; P = 1.8 × 10-5 and 1.8 × 10-3, respectively). We also observed associations of rs9383938 (ESR1) and rs2046210 (ESR1) with the absolute dense volume (P = 2.6 × 10-4 and 4.6 × 10-4, respectively), and rs6001930 (MLK1) and rs17356907 (NTN4) with the absolute nondense volume (P = 6.7 × 10-6 and 8.4 × 10-5, respectively). Conclusions Our results support the high heritability of mammographic density, though estimates are weaker for absolute than percent dense volume. We also demonstrate that the shared genetic component with breast cancer is not restricted to dense tissues only. © The Author 2014.


Kote-Jarai Z.,Institute of Cancer Research | Leongamornlert D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Saunders E.,Institute of Cancer Research | Tymrakiewicz M.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 14 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: A family history of prostate cancer (PrCa) is a strong risk factor for the disease, indicating that inherited factors are important in this disease. We previously estimated that about 2% of PrCa cases diagnosed ≤55 years harbour a BRCA2 mutation and PrCa among BRCA2 carriers has been shown to be more aggressive, with poorer survival. Methods: To further evaluate the role of BRCA2 in PrCa predisposition, we screened 1864 men with PrCa aged between 36 and 88 years. We analysed the BRCA2 gene using a novel high-throughput multiplex fluorescence heteroduplex detection system developed for the ABI3130xl genetic analyzer. Results: We identified 19 protein-truncating mutations, 3 in-frame deletions and 69 missense variants of uncertain significance (UV) in our sample set. All the carriers of truncating mutations developed PrCa at 6≤5 years, with a prevalence of BRCA2 mutation of 1.20% for cases in this age group. Conclusion: Based on the estimated frequency of BRCA2 mutations in the United Kingdom we estimate that germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene confer an ∼8.6-fold increased risk of PrCa by age 65, corresponding to an absolute risk of ∼15% by age 65. These results suggest that routine testing of early onset PrCa cases for germline BRCA2 mutations will further help to refine the prevalence and risk associated with BRCA2 mutations and may be useful for guiding management options. © 2011 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.


Leongamornlert D.,Institute of Cancer Research | Mahmud N.,Institute of Cancer Research | Tymrakiewicz M.,Institute of Cancer Research | Saunders E.,Institute of Cancer Research | And 13 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Prostate cancer (PrCa) is one of the most common cancers affecting men but its aetiology is poorly understood. Family history of PrCa, particularly at a young age, is a strong risk factor. There have been previous reports of increased PrCa risk in male BRCA1 mutation carriers in female breast cancer families, but there is a controversy as to whether this risk is substantiated. We sought to evaluate the role of germline BRCA1 mutations in PrCa predisposition by performing a candidate gene study in a large UK population sample set. Methods: We screened 913 cases aged 36-86 years for germline BRCA1 mutation, with the study enriched for cases with an early age of onset. We analysed the entire coding region of the BRCA1 gene using Sanger sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was also used to assess the frequency of large rearrangements in 460 cases. Results: We identified 4 deleterious mutations and 45 unclassified variants (UV). The frequency of deleterious BRCA1 mutation in this study is 0.45%; three of the mutation carriers were affected at age 65 years and one developed PrCa at 69 years. Using previously estimated population carrier frequencies, deleterious BRCA1 mutations confer a relative risk of PrCa of 3.75-fold, (95% confidence interval 1.02-9.6) translating to a 8.6% cumulative risk by age 65.ConclusionThis study shows evidence for an increased risk of PrCa in men who harbour germline mutations in BRCA1. This could have a significant impact on possible screening strategies and targeted treatments. © 2012 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.


Cheng I.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Chen G.K.,University of Southern California | Nakagawa H.,RIKEN | He J.,University of Southern California | And 29 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2012

Background: There have been few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer among diverse populations. To search for novel prostate cancer risk variants, we conducted GWAS of prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos. In addition, we tested prostate cancer risk variants and developed genetic risk models of prostate cancer for Japanese and Latinos. Methods: Our first-stage GWAS of prostate cancer included Japanese (cases/controls = 1,033/1,042) and Latino (cases/controls = 1,043/1,057) from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Significant associations from stage I (P < 1.0 × 10-4) were examined in silico in GWAS of prostate cancer (stage II) in Japanese (cases/controls = 1,583/3,386) and Europeans (cases/controls = 1,854/1,894). Results: No novel stage I single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) outside of known risk regions reached genome-wide significance. For Japanese, in stage I, the most notable putative novel association was seen with 10 SNPs (P ≤ 8.0 × 10-6) at chromosome 2q33; however, this was not replicated in stage II. For Latinos, the most significant association was observed with rs17023900 at the known 3p12 risk locus (stage I:OR = 1.45; P = 7.01 × 10-5 and stage II: OR = 1.58; P = 3.05 × 10-7). The majority of the established risk variants for prostate cancer, 79% and 88%, were positively associated with prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos (stage I), respectively. The cumulative effects of these variants significantly influence prostate cancer risk (OR per allele = 1.10; P = 2.71 × 10-25 and OR = 1.07; P = 1.02 × 10-16 for Japanese and Latinos, respectively). Conclusion and Impact: Our GWAS of prostate cancer did not identify novel genome-wide significant variants. However, our findings show that established risk variants for prostate cancer significantly contribute to risk among Japanese and Latinos. ©2012 AACR.


Mavaddat N.,Center for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology | Peock S.,Center for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology | Frost D.,Center for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology | Ellis S.,Center for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology | And 31 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2013

Background Reliable estimates of cancer risk are critical for guiding management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. The aims of this study were to derive penetrance estimates for breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and contralateral breast cancer in a prospective series of mutation carriers and to assess how these risks are modified by common breast cancer susceptibility alleles. Methods Prospective cancer risks were estimated using a cohort of 978 BRCA1 and 909 BRCA2 carriers from the United Kingdom. Nine hundred eighty-eight women had no breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis at baseline, 1509 women were unaffected by ovarian cancer, and 651 had been diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer. Cumulative risks were obtained using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Associations between cancer risk and covariables of interest were evaluated using Cox regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results The average cumulative risks by age 70 years for BRCA1 carriers were estimated to be 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 44% to 75%) for breast cancer, 59% (95% CI = 43% to 76%) for ovarian cancer, and 83% (95% CI = 69% to 94%) for contralateral breast cancer. For BRCA2 carriers, the corresponding risks were 55% (95% CI = 41% to 70%) for breast cancer, 16.5% (95% CI = 7.5% to 34%) for ovarian cancer, and 62% (95% CI = 44% to 79.5%) for contralateral breast cancer. BRCA2 carriers in the highest tertile of risk, defined by the joint genotype distribution of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with breast cancer risk, were at statistically significantly higher risk of developing breast cancer than those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.2 to 14.5; P =. 02). Conclusions Prospective risk estimates confirm that BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are at high risk of developing breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Our results confirm findings from retrospective studies that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles in combination are predictive of breast cancer risk for BRCA2 carriers. © 2013 The Author.

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