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Sant'Ambrogio di Torino, Italy

Richiardi L.,University of Turin | Vizzini L.,University of Turin | Pastore G.,Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont | Segnan N.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence. What's new? Adult height is known to be associated with testicular cancer risk. In this case-control study, the authors examined the extent to which this association is explained by height at various points in life, and also by parental height. They found that adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk, while parental height is not. These findings suggest that the consistently reported association between growth and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by the effect of environmental exposures. © 2013 UICC.

Bergeron C.,Laboratoire Cerba | Ronco G.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention | Reuschenbach M.,German Cancer Research Center | Wentzensen N.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

Cervical cancer screening test performance has been hampered by either lack of sensitivity of Pap cytology or lack of specificity of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) testing. This uncertainty can lead to unnecessary referral and treatment, which is disturbing for patients and increases costs for health care providers. The identification of p16INK4a as a marker for neoplastic transformation of cervical squamous epithelial cells by HPVs allows the identification of HPV-transformed cells in histopathology or cytopathology specimens. Diagnostic studies have demonstrated that the use of p16INK4a immunohistochemistry substantially improves the reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy of histopathologic diagnoses. p16INK4a cytology has substantially higher sensitivity for detection of cervical precancer in comparison to conventional Pap tests. Compared to HPV DNA tests, immunochemical detection of p16INK4a-stained cells demonstrates a significantly improved specificity with remarkably good sensitivity. About 15 years after the initial observation that p16INK4a is overexpressed in HPV-transformed cells we review the accumulated clinical evidence suggesting that p16INK4a can serve as a useful biomarker in the routine diagnostic work up of patients with HPV infections and associated lesions of the female anogenital tract. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

Rossi P.G.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Baldacchini F.,Azienda Unita Sanitaria Locale Of Reggio Emilia | Ronco G.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014

Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women.Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the existing inequalities.

Costantini A.S.,Cancer Prevention and Research Institute ISPO | Gallo F.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention | Pega F.,University of Otago | Pega F.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2015

Background: This article is part of a series commissioned by the International Epidemiological Association, aimed at describing population health and epidemiological resources in the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions. It covers 32 of the 53 WHO European countries, namely the Western European countries, the Balkan countries and the Baltic countries. Methods: The burdens of mortality and morbidity and the patterns of risk factors and inequalities have been reviewed in order to identify health priorities and challenges. Literature and internet searches were conducted to stock-take epidemiological teaching, research activities, funding and scientific productivity. Findings: These countries have among the highest life expectancies worldwide. However, within-and between-country inequalities persist, which are largely due to inequalities in distribution of main health determinants. There is a long tradition of epidemiological research and teaching in most countries, in particular in the Western European countries. Cross-national networks and collaborations are increasing through the support of the European Union which fosters procedures to standardize educational systems across Europe and provides funding for epidemiological research through framework programmes. The number of Medline-indexed epidemiological research publications per year led by Western European countries has been increasing. The countries accounts for nearly a third of the global epidemiological publication. Conclusions: Although population health has improved considerably overall, persistent withinand between-country inequalities continue to challenge national and European health institutions. More research, policy and action on the social determinants of health are required in the region. Epidemiological training, research and workforce in the Baltic and Balkan countries should be strengthened. European epidemiologists can play pivotal roles andmust influence legislation concerning production and access to high-quality data. © The Author 2015.

Allia E.,Center for Cervical Cancer Screening | Ronco G.,Center for Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention | Coccia A.,Center for Cervical Cancer Screening | Luparia P.,Center for Cervical Cancer Screening | And 13 more authors.
Cancer Cytopathology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND The triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women is needed to avoid overreferral to colposcopy. p16INK4a immunostaining is an efficient triage method. p16INK4a/Ki-67 dual staining was introduced mainly to increase reproducibility and specificity compared with stand-alone p16INK4a staining. METHODS Within a pilot project, HPV-positive women were referred to colposcopy if cytology was abnormal or unsatisfactory or HPV testing was still positive after 1 year. For 500 consecutive women, a slide obtained during colposcopy was immunostained for p16INK4a/Ki-67 and independently interpreted by 7 readers without previous experience with dual staining. Four of these readers were experts in cervical pathology and 3 were not. Kappa values for multiple raters, sensitivity, and specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia type 2-positive histology were computed. Because women with normal cytology were underrepresented, estimates for all HPV-positive women were obtained as weighted means of cytology-specific estimates. RESULTS The overall kappa for HPV-positive women was 0.70 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.60-0.77). Kappa values were not found to be significantly different between expert and nonexpert readers with regard to cervical cytology but were significantly increased (P =. 0066) after consensus discussion. The overall specificity estimate for HPV-positive women was 64.0% (95% CI, 57.4%-70.2%): 66.7% (95% CI, 59.8%-73.0%) for experts and 60.5% (95% CI, 59.8%-73.0%) for nonexperts. Among women with abnormal cytology, the sensitivity was 85.5% (95% CI, 77.9%-90.8%): 85.8% (95% CI, 77.9%-91.2%) for experts and 85.1% (95% CI, 76.6%-90.9%) for nonexperts. CONCLUSIONS p16INK4a/Ki-67 immunostaining demonstrated good reproducibility and specificity when triaging HPV-positive women. Dual-staining interpretation can be performed, after short training, even by staff who are not experts in cervical cytology. This allows HPV-based screening with triage to be performed in settings in which such expert staff is not available. © 2014 The Authors.

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