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Sokolowska I.,University of Gdansk | Pilka E.S.,Evotec | Sandvig K.,University of Oslo | Sandvig K.,Center for Cancer Biomedicine | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cell Biology

Background: EDEM1 and EDEM2 are crucial regulators of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) that extracts misfolded glycoproteins from the calnexin chaperone system. The degradation of ERAD substrates involves mannose trimming of N-linked glycans; however the precise mechanism of substrate recognition and sorting to the ERAD pathway is still poorly understood. It has previously been demonstrated that EDEM1 and EDEM2 binding does not require the trimming of substrate glycans or even ERAD substrate glycosylation, thus suggesting that both chaperones probably recognize misfolded regions of aberrant proteins. Results: In this work, we focused on the substrate recognition by EDEM1 and EDEM2, asking whether hydrophobicity of protein determinants might be important for these interactions in human cells. In the study we used ricin, a protein toxin that utilizes the ERAD pathway in its retrotranslocation from the ER to the cytosol, and a model misfolded protein, the pancreatic isoform of human β-secretase, BACE457. Mutations in the hydrophobic regions of these proteins allowed us to obtain mutated forms with increased and decreased hydrophobicity. Conclusions: Our data provide the first evidence that recognition of ERAD substrates by EDEM1 and EDEM2 might be determined by a sufficiently high hydrophobicity of protein determinants. Moreover, EDEM proteins can bind hydrophobic transmembrane regions of misfolded ERAD substrates. These data contribute to the general understanding of the regulation of ERAD in mammalian cells. © Sokolowska et al. Source

Murrell W.,University of Oslo | Palmero E.,University of Oslo | Bianco J.,University of Oslo | Stangeland B.,University of Oslo | And 12 more authors.

The discovery of stem cells in the adult human brain has revealed new possible scenarios for treatment of the sick or injured brain. Both clinical use of and preclinical research on human adult neural stem cells have, however, been seriously hampered by the fact that it has been impossible to passage these cells more than a very few times and with little expansion of cell numbers. Having explored a number of alternative culturing conditions we here present an efficient method for the establishment and propagation of human brain stem cells from whatever brain tissue samples we have tried. We describe virtually unlimited expansion of an authentic stem cell phenotype. Pluripotency proteins Sox2 and Oct4 are expressed without artificial induction. For the first time multipotency of adult human brain-derived stem cells is demonstrated beyond tissue boundaries. We characterize these cells in detail in vitro including microarray and proteomic approaches. Whilst clarification of these cells' behavior is ongoing, results so far portend well for the future repair of tissues by transplantation of an adult patient's own-derived stem cells. © 2013 Murrell et al. Source

Eide M.B.,Center for Cancer Biomedicine | Eide M.B.,University of Oslo | Eide M.B.,Institute for Cancer Research | Kvalheim G.,University of Oslo | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Haematology

We present a prospective phase II study of patients with relapse after chemotherapy showing transformation of follicular lymphoma to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, performed before rituximab was included in standard treatment. Patients in complete (CR) or partial remission (PR) after salvage chemotherapy were eligible for high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT). Forty-seven patients from five Norwegian centres were included, of whom 30 (63%) received HDT. Eighteen (60%) achieved CR, seven (23%) PR and five (10%) had progressive disease following HDT. Median follow-up for the surviving patients was 75months; median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 26 and 47months, respectively. Median OS for all patients was 43months, compared to only 10months for patients not eligible for HDT. Patients receiving CD34+ enriched/B-cell depleted grafts had inferior PFS and a trend for inferior OS compared to patients receiving non-purged grafts (Log Rank 0·025 and 0·151, respectively). In conclusion, two thirds of patients with transformation of follicular lymphoma were eligible for HDT. The majority of patients achieved CR and a considerable number had prolonged OS. The use of in vitro purged grafts did not result in a survival benefit compared to that of non-purged grafts. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Sveen A.,Institute for Cancer Research | Sveen A.,Center for Cancer Biomedicine | Agesen T.H.,Institute for Cancer Research | Agesen T.H.,Center for Cancer Biomedicine | And 10 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research

Purpose: Improved prognostic stratification of patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer is warranted for postoperative clinical decision making. This study was conducted to develop a clinically feasible and robust prognostic classifier for these patients independent of adjuvant treatment. Experimental Design: Global gene expression profiles from altogether 387 stage II and III colorectal cancer tissue samples from three independent patient series were included in the study. ColoGuidePro, a seven-gene prognostic classifier, was developed from a selected Norwegian learning series (n = 95; no adjuvant treatment) using lasso-penalized multivariate survival modeling with cross-validation. Results: The expression signature significantly stratified patients in a consecutive Norwegian test series, in which patients were treated according to current standards [HR, 2.9 (1.1-7.5); P = 0.03; n = 77] and an external validation series [HR, 3.7 (2.0-6.8); P < 0.001; n = 215] according to survival. ColoGuidePro was also an independent predictor of prognosis in multivariate models including tumor stage in both series (HR, ≥3.1; P ≤ 0.03). In the validation series, which consisted of patients from other populations (United States and Australia), 5-year relapse-free survival was significantly predicted for stage III patients only (P < 0.001; n = 107). Here, prognostic stratification was independent of adjuvant treatment (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We present ColoGuidePro, a prognostic classifier developed for patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer. The test is suitable for transfer to clinical use and has best prognostic prediction potential for stage III patients. ©2012 AACR. Source

Yri O.E.,University of Oslo | Yri O.E.,Center for Cancer Biomedicine | Ekstrom P.O.,University of Oslo | Hilden V.,University of Oslo | And 7 more authors.
Leukemia and Lymphoma

We analyzed the allelic distribution of 12 candidate polymorphisms in a large retrospective study of 486 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated at Oslo University Hospital with 1056 blood donors serving as controls. Variants in TNFα (rs1800629) (GG vs. AG/AA, p < 0.001) and LTA (rs909253) (AA vs. AG/GG, p = 0.02) and deletions in GSTM1 and GSTT1 (undeleted vs. deleted, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively) were associated with increased susceptibility of developing DLBCL. IL-10 (rs1800896) variants (GG vs. AG/AA, p = 0.03) were associated with decreased susceptibility. In line with several previous reports, patients carrying the TNFα (rs1800629) A allele treated in the pre-rituximab era had inferior outcome compared to patients carrying the homozygous GG genotype (p = 0.004, n = 33). However, patients receiving at least one dose of rituximab had equal outcome regardless of their TNFα genotype (HR = 0.94, p = 0.79, n = 307). Deletion in GSTM1 was associated with inferior outcome for patients with low International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (p = 0.04). Our findings support the suggestions that polymorphisms in genes encoding immunoregulatory proteins and enzymes that metabolize carcinogens and chemotherapeutic drugs influence DLBCL susceptibility and possibly treatment outcome. The influence of polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes on outcome in DLBCL should be reevaluated in the rituximab era. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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