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Workman P.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Aboagye E.O.,Imperial College London | Balkwill F.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation | Balmain A.,University of California at San Francisco | And 16 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2010

Animal experiments remain essential to understand the fundamental mechanisms underpinning malignancy and to discover improved methods to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer. Excellent standards of animal care are fully consistent with the conduct of high quality cancer research. Here we provide updated guidelines on the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. All experiments should incorporate the 3Rs: replacement, reduction and refinement. Focusing on animal welfare, we present recommendations on all aspects of cancer research, including: study design, statistics and pilot studies; choice of tumour models (e.g., genetically engineered, orthotopic and metastatic); therapy (including drugs and radiation); imaging (covering techniques, anaesthesia and restraint); humane endpoints (including tumour burden and site); and publication of best practice. © 2010 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Balkwill F.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation | Joffroy C.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation
Future Oncology | Year: 2010

TNF-α is a major inflammatory cytokine named for its ability to induce rapid hemorrhagic necrosis of experimental cancers. During efforts to harness this antitumor activity in cancer treatments in the 1980s, a paradoxical tumor-promoting role of TNF became apparent. The cellular and molecular complexity of mammalian tumor microenvironments makes these opposing effects difficult to study. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a simpler model system for studying complex cellular and genetic interactions that lead to tumor formation and progression. The paper from Marcos Vidals group shows that both the tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles of TNF are conserved in Drosophila, and that oncogenic Ras is the switch. The links between inflammation and cancer are now more fully understood, but it is still not clear whether TNF has potential as a target or a therapeutic in malignant disease, or both. Research in an invertebrate organism may provide important insights. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.

Maniati E.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation | Soper R.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation | Hagemann T.,Center for Cancer and Inflammation
Oncogene | Year: 2010

The role of interleukin (IL)-17 and the IL-17-producing T helper (Th)17 cells in cancer has recently become the focus of extensive investigation. An expanding body of literature implicates Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine in both pro- and anti-tumourigenic processes. In this review we describe their biological activities and outline the reciprocal interactions between Th17 cells and other cells of the immune system. We also discuss the evidence regarding their dual role in the tumour microenvironment. An understanding of the processes that regulate the pro- or anti-tumour activities of Th17 cell and IL-17 will allow the development of more effective means for cancer immunotherapy. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

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