Center for Botanical Interaction Studies
Center for Botanical Interaction Studies
Chuang D.Y.,University of Missouri |
Chuang D.Y.,Center for Botanical Interaction Studies |
Chan M.-H.,National Chengchi University |
Chan M.-H.,University of Missouri |
And 24 more authors.
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2013
Background: The bark of magnolia has been used in Oriental medicine to treat a variety of remedies, including some neurological disorders. Magnolol (Mag) and honokiol (Hon) are isomers of polyphenolic compounds from the bark of Magnolia officinalis, and have been identified as major active components exhibiting anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigate the ability of these isomers to suppress oxidative stress in neurons stimulated by the ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and oxidative and inflammatory responses in microglial cells activated by interferon-γ (IFNγ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We also attempt to elucidate the mechanism and signaling pathways involved in cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglial cells.Methods: Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to assay superoxide production in neurons, while CM-H2DCF-DA was used to test for ROS production in murine (BV-2) and rat (HAPI) immortalized microglial cells. NADPH oxidase inhibitors (for example, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), AEBSF, and apocynin) and immunocytochemistry targeting p47phox and gp91phox were used to assess the involvement of NADPH oxidase. Western blotting was used to assess iNOS and ERK1/2 expression, and the Griess reaction protocol was employed to determine nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Results: Exposure of Hon and Mag (1-10 μM) to neurons for 24 h did not alter neuronal viability, but both compounds (10 μM) inhibited NMDA-stimulated superoxide production, a pathway known to involve NADPH oxidase. In microglial cells, Hon and Mag inhibited IFNγ±LPS-induced iNOS expression, NO, and ROS production. Studies with inhibitors and immunocytochemical assay further demonstrated the important role of IFNγ activating the NADPH oxidase through the p-ERK-dependent pathway. Hon and, to a lesser extent, Mag inhibited IFNγ-induced p-ERK1/2 and its downstream pathway for ROS and NO production. Conclusion: This study highlights the important role of NADPH oxidase in mediating oxidative stress in neurons and microglial cells and has unveiled the role of IFNγ in stimulating the MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway for activation of NADPH oxidase in microglial cells. Hon and Mag offer anti-oxidative or anti-inflammatory effects, at least in part, through suppressing IFNγ-induced p-ERK1/2 and its downstream pathway. © 2013 Chuang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Slusarz A.,University of Missouri |
Slusarz A.,Center for Botanical Interaction Studies |
Jackson G.A.,University of Missouri |
Jackson G.A.,Center for Botanical Interaction Studies |
And 13 more authors.
Endocrinology | Year: 2012
Previous evidence suggests soy genistein may be protective against prostate cancer, but whether this protection involves an estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent mechanism is unknown. To test the hypothesis that phytoestrogens may act through ERα or ERβ to play a protective role against prostate cancer, we bred transgenic mice lacking functional ERα or ERβ with transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice. Dietary genistein reduced the incidence of cancer in ER wild-type (WT)/transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate mice but not in ERα knockout (KO) or ERβKO mice. Cancer incidence was 70% in ERWT mice fed the control diet compared with 47% in ERWT mice fed low-dose genistein (300 mg/kg) and 32% on the high-dose genistein (750 mg/kg). Surprisingly, genistein only affected the well differentiated carcinoma (WDC) incidence but had no effect on poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC). No dietary effects have been observed in either of the ERKO animals. We observed a very strong genotypic influence on PDC incidence, a protective effect in ERαKO (only 5% developed PDC), compared with 19% in the ERWT, and an increase in the incidence of PDC in ERαKO mice to 41%. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analysis showed ERα expression changing from nonnuclear in WDC to nuclear in PDC, with little change in ERβ location or expression. In conclusion, genistein is able to inhibit WDC in the presence of both ERs, but the effect of estrogen signaling on PDC is dominant over any dietary treatment, suggesting that improved differential targeting of ERα vs. ERβ wouldresult in prevention of advanced prostate cancer. Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society.