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Gyongyossy-Issa M.I.C.,Center for Blood Research
Transfusion and Apheresis Science | Year: 2011

The metabolic conversion of glucose to energy and reducing power by platelets is examined. Although platelets concurrently metabolize glucose aerobically and anaerobically, the balance between the cytosolic and mitochondrial pathways is affected not only by physiological activation but also by conditions prevailing during in vitro storage. The development of platelet additive solutions and pathogen reduction technologies point to increased glucose metabolism and consequent high levels of lactate production as the effect of platelet damage, rather than the cause. Consequently a different perspective of the data suggests that reduction rather than support of platelet metabolism in vitro would result in a better quality of stored platelets. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Williamson L.M.,National Health Service Blood and Transplant | Devine D.V.,Center for Blood Research
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Although blood suppliers are seeing short-term reductions in blood demand as a result of initiatives in patient blood management, modelling suggests that during the next 5-10 years, blood availability in developed countries will need to increase again to meet the demands of ageing populations. Increasing of the blood supply raises many challenges; new approaches to recruitment and retainment of future generations of blood donors will be needed, and care will be necessary to avoid taking too much blood from these donors. Integrated approaches in blood stock management between transfusion services and hospitals will be important to minimise wastage - eg, by use of supply chain solutions from industry. Cross-disciplinary systems for patient blood management need to be developed to lessen the need for transfusion - eg, by early identification and reversal of anaemia with haematinics or by reversal of the underlying cause. Personalised medicine could be applied to match donors to patients, not only with extended blood typing, but also by using genetically determined storage characteristics of blood components. Growing of red cells or platelets in large quantities from stem cells is a possibility in the future, but challenges of cost, scaling up, and reproducibility remain to be solved. Source

Leung V.L.,University of British Columbia | Kizhakkedathu J.N.,University of British Columbia | Kizhakkedathu J.N.,Center for Blood Research
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2016

Cell surface engineering using polymers is a promising approach to address unmet needs and adverse immune reactions in the fields of transfusion, transplantation, and cell-based therapies. Furthermore, cell surface modification may minimize or prevent adverse immune reactions to homologous incompatible cells as the interface between the host immune system and the cell surface is modified. In this report, we investigate the immune system reaction, precisely the complement binding and activation on cell surfaces modified with a functional polymer, hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG). We used red blood cells (RBCs) as a model system to investigate the mechanism of complement activation on cell surfaces modified with various forms of HPG. Using a battery of in vitro assays including: traditional diagnostic hemolytic assays involving sheep and rabbit erythrocytes, ELISAs and flow cytometry, we show that HPG modified RBCs at certain concentrations and molecular weights activate complement via the alternative pathway. We show that by varying the grafting concentration, molecular weight and the number of cell surface reactive groups of HPG, the complement activity on the cell surface can be modulated. HPGs with molecular weights greater than 28 kDa and grafting concentrations greater than 1.0 mM, as well as a high degree of HPG functionalization with cell surface reactive groups result in the activation of the complement system via the alternative pathway. No complement activation observed when these threshold levels are not exceeded. These insights may have an impact on devising key strategies in developing novel next generation cell-surface engineered therapeutic products for applications in the fields of cell therapy, transfusion and drug delivery. Statement of Significance Cell-surface engineering using functional polymers is a fast emerging area of research. Importantly modified cells are used in many experimental therapeutics, transplantation and in transfusion. The success of such therapies depend on the ability of modified products to avoid immune detection and subsequent rejection or removal. Polymer grafting has been shown to modulate immune response, however, there is limited knowledge available. Thus in this manuscript, we investigated the interaction of human complement, part of our innate immune system, by polymer modified cells. Our results provide important evidences on the mechanism of complement activation by the modified cells and also found ways to modulate the innate immune response. These results will have implications in development of next generation cell-based therapies. © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Lai B.F.L.,Center for Blood Research | Zou Y.,Center for Blood Research | Brooks D.E.,Center for Blood Research | Brooks D.E.,University of British Columbia | Kizhakkedathu J.N.,Center for Blood Research
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Poly-N-[(2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane)methyl]acrylamide (PDMDOMA) is a neutral synthetic water-soluble polymer. In this report, we evaluated the influence of PDMDOMA on blood hemostasis by studying the fibrin polymerization process, the three-dimensional clot structure, and the mechanical properties and fibrinolysis. PDMDOMA altered the normal fibrin polymerization by changing the rate of protofibril aggregation and resulting in a 5-fold increase in the overall turbidity. Fibrin clots formed in presence of PDMDOMA exhibited thinner fibers with less branching which resulted in a more porous and heterogeneous clot structure in scanning electron micrographs. The overall strength and rigidity of the whole blood clot also decreased up to 10-fold. When a combination of plasminogen and tissue-plasminogen activators were included in clotting reactions, fibrin clots formed in the presence of PDMDOMA exhibited highly shortened clot lysis times and was supported by the enhanced clot lysis measured by thromboelastography in whole blood. Further evidence of the altered clot structure and clot cross-linking was obtained from the significant decrease in d-dimer levels measured from degraded plasma clot. Thus, PDMDOMA may play an important role as an antithrombotic agent useful in prophylactic treatments for thrombosis by modulating fibrin clot structure to enhance fibrinolysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liu Z.,Center for Blood Research | Janzen J.,Center for Blood Research | Brooks D.E.,Center for Blood Research | Brooks D.E.,University of British Columbia
Biomaterials | Year: 2010

Hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers bearing stearoyl chains (HPG-C18-PEG) were originally developed as human serum albumin substitutes and further as a unimolecular drug delivery system. In view of these in vivo applications and the potential for membrane interaction by these materials due to their amphiphilic structure, determining the adsorption of the polymers to human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important issue. This paper reports on the in vitro adsorption to RBCs of tritium-radiolabeled HPG-C18-PEG polymers. The morphological changes of RBCs associated with the adsorption were also examined by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) suggests that the binding site of the polymers on RBCs is the cell membrane. Adsorption experiments show that, in the medium of either saline or plasma, the binding amount of the polymers to RBCs increases with increased polymer concentration in a manner which implies simple Langmurian behavior. The binding amount in saline is of the order of 105 molecules/cell at an equilibrium concentration of 1 mg/mL of HPG-C18-PEG polymer. The RBC morphology depends on the adsorbed amount; the cells become crenated in high concentrations (5 and 10 mg/mL) of the polymer solutions in the absence of plasma proteins. Interestingly, a large amount of polymers remain bound to RBCs even after washes with plasma (of the order of 104 molecules/cell). Thus, the bound polymers might have an extended circulating time by "hitchhiking" on RBCs in the bloodstream. These results provide significant information and insight for related studies of the interaction of amphiphilic molecules with cell membranes and for in vivo applications of biopolymers as drug delivery systems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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