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Heesters B.A.,Childrens Hospital | Das A.,Childrens Hospital | Chatterjee P.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Carroll M.C.,Childrens Hospital | Carroll M.C.,Harvard University
Molecular Immunology | Year: 2014

The factors that allow self-reactive B cells to escape negative selection and become activated remain poorly defined. In this review we describe recently published results in which a B cell receptor-knock-in mouse strain specific for nucleolar self-antigens was bred with mice deficient in complement C4 and discuss the implications for the lupus field. Absence of C4 leads to a breakdown in the elimination of autoreactive B cell clones at the transitional stage. This is characterized by a relative increase in their response to a range of stimuli, entrance into follicles and a greater propensity to form self-reactive germinal centers. In this review, a model is proposed in which, in the absence of complement C4, inappropriate clearance of apoptotic debris promotes chronic activation of myeloid cells and follicular dendritic cells, resulting in secretion of Type I interferon. This allows for the maturation and activation of self-reactive B cell clones leading to increased spontaneous formation of germinal centers and subsequent generation of autoantibodies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Krishnan V.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Dwivedi P.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Kim B.J.,San Diego State University | Samal A.,University of Alabama at Birmingham | And 6 more authors.
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2013

The crystal structure of a 75 14;kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 14;kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography.


Saha K.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Bajaj A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Duncan B.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Rotello V.M.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Small | Year: 2011

Surface recognition of biosystems is a critical component in the development of novel biosensors and delivery vehicles, and for the therapeutic regulation of biological processes. Monolayer-protected nanoparticles present a highly versatile scaffold for selective interaction with bio-macromolecules and cells. Through the engineering of the monolayer surface, nanoparticles can be tailored for surface recognition of biomolecules and cells. This review highlights recent progress in nanoparticle-bio-macromolecule/cellular interactions, emphasizing the effect of the surface monolayer structure on the interactions with proteins, DNA, and cell surfaces. The extension of these tailored interactions to hybrid nanomaterials, biosensing platforms, and delivery vehicles is also discussed. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Biswas J.,Indian Institute of Science | Bajaj A.,Indian Institute of Science | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bhattacharya S.,Indian Institute of Science | Bhattacharya S.,Chemical Biology Unit
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2011

Two series of cholesterol-based cationic gemini lipids with and without hydroxyl functions at the headgroups possessing different lengths of polymethylene [-(CH2)n-] (n = 3, 4, 5, 6, 12) spacer have been synthesized. Each gemini lipid formed stable suspension in water. The suspensions of these gemini lipids in water were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurements and X-ray diffraction to characterize the nature of the individual aggregates formed therein. The aggregation properties of these gemini lipids in water were found to strongly depend upon the length of the spacer and the presence of hydroxyl group at the headgroup region. Lipoplex formation (DNA binding) and the release of the DNA from such lipoplexes were performed to understand the nature of interactions that prevail between these cationic cholesterol aggregates and duplex DNA. The interactions between such gemini lipids and DNA depend both on the presence of OH on the headgroups and the spacer length between the headgroups. Finally, we studied the effect of incorporation of each cationic gemini lipid into dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles using differential scanning calorimetry. The properties of the resulting mixed membranes were found again to depend upon the nature of the headgroup and the spacer chain length. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Bhattacharjee S.,University of Missouri | Bhattacharjee S.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Garner C.M.,University of Missouri | Gassmann W.,University of Missouri
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of theTCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified. © 2013 Bhattacharjee, Garner and Gassmann.


Singh M.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics | Year: 2014

We used eight bile acid cationic lipids differing in the number of hydroxyl groups and performed in-depth differential scanning calorimetry studies on model membranes doped with different percentages of these cationic bile acids. These studies revealed that the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids modulate the phase transition and co-operativity of membranes. Lithocholic acid based cationic lipids having no free hydroxyl groups gel well with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membranes. Chenodeoxycholic acid lipids having one free hydroxyl group at the 7′-carbon position disrupt the membranes and lower their co-operativity. Deoxycholic acid and cholic acid based cationic lipids have free hydroxyl groups at the 12′-carbon position, and at 7′- and 12′-carbon positions respectively. Doping of these lipids at high concentrations increases the co-operativity of membranes suggesting that these lipids might induce self-assembly in DPPC membranes. These different modes of interactions between cationic lipids and model membranes would help in future for exploring their use in DNA/drug delivery. © 2014 The Owner Societies.


Singh M.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Singh A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Kundu S.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bansal S.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes | Year: 2013

We synthesized four cationic bile acid based facial amphiphiles featuring trimethyl ammonium head groups. We evaluated the role of these amphiphiles for cytotoxic activities against colon cancer cells and their membrane interactions by varying charge, hydration and hydrophobicity. The singly charged cationic Lithocholic acid based amphiphile (LCA-TMA1) is most cytotoxic, whereas the triply charged cationic Cholic acid based amphiphile (CA-TMA 3) is least cytotoxic. Light microscopy and Annexin-FITC assay revealed that these facial amphiphiles caused late apoptosis. In addition, we studied the interactions of these amphiphiles with model membrane systems by Prodan-based hydration, DPH-based anisotropy, and differential scanning calorimetry. LCA-TMA1 is most hydrophobic with a hard charge causing efficient dehydration and maximum perturbations of membranes thereby facilitating translocation and high cytotoxicity against colon cancer cells. In contrast, the highly hydrated and multiple charged CA-TMA3 caused least membrane perturbations leading to low translocation and less cytotoxicity. As expected, Chenodeoxycholic acid and Deoxycholic acid based amphiphiles (CDCA-TMA2, DCA-TMA2) featuring two charged head groups showed intermediate behavior. Thus, we deciphered that charge, hydration, and hydrophobicity of these amphiphiles govern membrane interactions, translocation, and resulting cytoxicity against colon cancer cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Sreekanth V.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

We have studied the interactions of three bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates, lithocholic acid-tamoxifen (LA-Tam1-Am), deoxycholic acid-tamoxifen (DCA-Tam2-Am), and cholic acid-tamoxifen (CA-Tam3-Am), possessing 1-3 tamoxifen molecules having an amine headgroup with model DPPC membranes and compared with N-desmethylated tamoxifen (TamNHMe) using DPH based fluorescence anisotropy, Prodan based hydration, and differential scanning calorimetry studies. DPH based anisotropy studies showed that bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates increase membrane fluidity, which strongly depends on the number of tamoxifen molecules conjugated to bile acid and the percentage of doping of bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates in the DPPC membranes. The order of membrane fluidity of the coliposomes from bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates and DPPC lipids in gel phase was found to be CA-Tam3-Am > DCA-Tam 2-Am > LA-Tam1-Am > TamNHMe. Incorporation of bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates showed an unusual complex behavior of membrane hydration, as evident from Prodan based hydration studies. Temperature dependent study showed incorporation of LA-Tam1-Am and DCA-Tam2-Am conjugates decreases membrane hydration with an increase in temperature up to the phase transition temperature (Tm). Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed a decrease in phase transition temperature (T m) upon an increase in the percentage of doping of TamNHMe and CA-Tam3-Am, whereas LA-Tam1-Am and DCA-Tam2-Am do not cause a major change in the phase transition temperature (Tm) of DPPC liposomes. These studies showed the differential behavior of bile acid-tamoxifen conjugates regulating the membrane fluidity, hydration, and phase transition of model membranes depending upon the percentage of doping and tamoxifen conjugation to bile acids. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Sreekanth V.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2013

Interactions of synthetic phospholipids with model membranes determines the drug release capabilities of phospholipid vesicles at diseased sites. We performed 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH)-based fluorescence anisotropy, Laurdan-based membrane hydration, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies to cognize the interactions of three bile acid phospholipids, lithocholic acid-phosphocholine (LCA-PC), deoxycholic acid-phosphocholine (DCA-PC), and cholic acid-phosphocholine (CA-PC) with model membranes. These studies revealed that bile acid phospholipids increases membrane fluidity in DCA-PC > CA-PC > LCA-PC order, indicating that induction of membrane fluidity is contingent on the number and positioning of free hydroxyl groups on bile acids. Similarly, DCA-PC causes maximum membrane perturbations due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group, whereas LCA-PC induces gel phase in membranes due to hydrophobic bile acid acyl chain interactions. These DCA-PC-induced membrane perturbations induce a drastic decrease in phase transition temperature (Tm) as determined by calorimetric studies, whereas doping of LCA-PC causes phase transition broadening without change in Tm. Doping of CA-PC induces membrane perturbations and membrane hydration like DCA-PC but sharpening of phase transition at higher doping suggests self-association of CA-PC molecules. Therefore these differential mode of interactions between bile acid phospholipids and model membranes would help in the future for their use in drug delivery. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Bhargava P.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Singh M.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Sreekanth V.,Regional Center for Biotechnology | Bajaj A.,Regional Center for Biotechnology
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Phospholipids play a crucial role in many cellular processes ranging from selective membrane permeability, to membrane fission and fusion, to cellular signaling. Headgroups of phospholipids determine the membrane properties and fusogenicity of these lipids with target cell membranes. We studied the fusogenic and membrane properties of phospholipids possessing unnatural charged headgroups with model membranes using laurdan based membrane hydration studies, DPH based membrane fluidity, and differential scanning calorimetry. We unravel that fusogenicity, membrane hydration, and fluidity of membranes are strongly contingent on the nature of the phospholipid charged headgroup. Our studies unraveled that introduction of bulky headgroups like dimethylamino pyridine induces maximum membrane hydration and perturbations with high fusogenicity as compared to small headgroup based phospholipids. These phospholipids also have the capability of high retention in DPPC membranes. Hydration and fluidity of these phospholipid-doped DPPC membranes are contingent on the nature of the charged headgroup. This study would help in future design of phospholipid based nanomaterials for effective drug delivery. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

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