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Stone D.,Oregon State University | Harper B.J.,Oregon State University | Lynch I.,Center for BioNano Interactions | Dawson K.,Center for BioNano Interactions | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health | Year: 2010

Given the development of nanotechnology within numerous scientific disciplines, it is likely that nanoscale products have been and will be used for agricultural, vector, and urban pest control prior to a complete evaluation of exposure and risk. Significant differences may exist between nanotechnology-based pesticides (NBPs) and conventional pesticides, primarily due to size and surface characteristics. These differences may result in changes in bioavailability, sensitivity, dosimetry, and pharmacokinetics. This paper considers the role of exposure assessment in the regulation of NBPs. While the existing regulatory infrastructure for pesticides is well established, several issues specific to NBP exposure are discussed, including: (1) disclosures of nanoparticle characteristics in product formulations; (2) additional uncertainty factors for NBPs with inadequate data; (3) route-specific approaches for assessing exposure; (4) testing with the commercial form of NBPs; (5) initiation of a health surveillance program; and (6) development of educational programs. Source


Milani S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Baldelli Bombelli F.,Center for BioNano Interactions | Baldelli Bombelli F.,University College Dublin | Baldelli Bombelli F.,University of East Anglia | And 5 more authors.
ACS Nano | Year: 2012

Protein adsorption to nanoparticles (NPs) is a key prerequisite to understand NP-cell interactions. While the layer thickness of the protein corona has been well characterized in many cases, the absolute number of bound proteins and their exchange dynamics in body fluids is difficult to assess. Here we measure the number of molecules adsorbed to sulfonate (PSOSO 3H) and carboxyl-(PSCOOH) polystyrene NPs using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We find that the fraction of molecules bound to NPs falls onto a single, universal adsorption curve, if plotted as a function of molar protein-to-NP ratio. The adsorption curve shows the build-up of a strongly bound monolayer up to the point of monolayer saturation (at a geometrically defined protein-to-NP ratio), beyond which a secondary, weakly bound layer is formed. While the first layer is irreversibly bound (hard corona), the secondary layer (soft corona) exhibits dynamic exchange, if competing unlabeled is added. In the presence of plasma proteins, the hard corona is stable, while the soft corona is almost completely removed. The existence of two distinct time scales in the protein off-kinetics, for both NP types studied here, indicates the possibility of an exposure memory effect in the NP corona. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Monopoli M.P.,Center for BioNano Interactions | Monopoli M.P.,University College Dublin | Aberg C.,Center for BioNano Interactions | Salvati A.,Center for BioNano Interactions | And 2 more authors.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2012

The search for understanding the interactions of nanosized materials with living organisms is leading to the rapid development of key applications, including improved drug delivery by targeting nanoparticles, and resolution of the potential threat of nanotechnological devices to organisms and the environment. Unless they are specifically designed to avoid it, nanoparticles in contact with biological fluids are rapidly covered by a selected group of biomolecules to form a corona that interacts with biological systems. Here we review the basic concept of the nanoparticle corona and its structure and composition, and highlight how the properties of the corona may be linked to its biological impacts. We conclude with a critical assessment of the key problems that need to be resolved in the near future. Copyright © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

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