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Strange B.A.,Center for Biomedical Technology | Strange B.A.,Alzheimerfs Disease Research Center | Witter M.P.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Lein E.S.,Allen Institute for Brain Science | Moser E.I.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Nature Reviews Neuroscience

The precise functional role of the hippocampus remains a topic of much debate. The dominant view is that the dorsal (or posterior) hippocampus is implicated in memory and spatial navigation and the ventral (or anterior) hippocampus mediates anxiety-related behaviours. However, this 'dichotomy view' may need revision. Gene expression studies demonstrate multiple functional domains along the hippocampal long axis, which often exhibit sharply demarcated borders. By contrast, anatomical studies and electrophysiological recordings in rodents suggest that the long axis is organized along a gradient. Together, these observations suggest a model in which functional long-axis gradients are superimposed on discrete functional domains. This model provides a potential framework to explain and test the multiple functions ascribed to the hippocampus. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

Lechler P.,University of Regensburg | Balakrishnan S.,Imperial College London | Schaumburger J.,University of Regensburg | Grassel S.,University of Regensburg | And 5 more authors.
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

Background: Regulation of cell death and cell division are key processes during chondrogenesis and in cartilage homeostasis and pathology. The oncogene survivin is considered to be critical for the coordination of mitosis and maintenance of cell viability during embryonic development and in cancer, and is not detectable in most adult differentiated tissues and cells. We analyzed survivin expression in osteoarthritic cartilage and its function in primary human chondrocytes in vitro. Methods. Survivin expression was analyzed by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time PCR. The localization was visualized by immunofluorescence. Survivin functions in vitro were investigated by transfection of a specific siRNA. Results: Survivin was expressed in human osteoarthritic cartilage, but was not detectable in macroscopically and microscopically unaffected cartilage of osteoarthritic knee joints. In primary human chondrocyte cultures, survivin was localized to heterogeneous subcellular compartments. Suppression of survivin resulted in inhibition of cell cycle progression and sensitization toward apoptotic stimuli in vitro. Conclusions: The present study indicates a role for survivin in osteoarthritic cartilage and human chondrocytes. In vitro experiments indicated its involvement in cellular division and viability. Learning more about the functions of survivin in chondrocyte biology might further help toward understanding and modulating the complex processes of cartilage pathology and regeneration. © 2011 Lechler et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lopez-Higes R.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gallego C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martin-Aragoneses M.T.,Spanish University for Distance Education (UNED) | Martin-Aragoneses M.T.,Center for Biomedical Technology | Melle N.,Complutense University of Madrid
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education

This study explores morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in 19 Spanish children who received a cochlear implant (CI) before 24 months of age (early CI [e-CI]) and 19 Spanish children who received a CI after 24 months (late CI [l-CI]). They all were in primary school and were compared to a hearing control (HC) group of 19 children. Tests of perceptual reasoning, working memory, receptive vocabulary, and morpho-syntactic comprehension were used in the assessment. It was observed that while children with l-CI showed a delay, those with e-CI reached a level close to that which was obtained by their control peers in morpho-syntactic comprehension. Thus, results confirm a positive effect of early implantation on morpho-syntactic reading comprehension. Inflectional morphology and simple sentence comprehension were noted to be better in the e-CI group than in the l-CI group. The most important factor in distinguishing between the HC and l-CI groups or the e-CI and l-CI groups was verbal inflectional morphology. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. Source

Cashdollar N.,University of California at San Francisco | Cashdollar N.,University of Trento | Fukuda K.,University of Oregon | Bocklage A.,University of Mannheim | And 3 more authors.
Psychology and Aging

Older adults are more vulnerable to a negative impact of irrelevant information on cognitive performance. We used a psychophysical approach to evaluate which aspects of distraction are altered in aging: susceptibility for attention to be captured by a distractor, or the timing of disengagement from processing a distractor. We found that younger and older adults were equally susceptible to a detrimental influence of attentional capture on target detection in the initial moments after distractor presentation, but older adults exhibited a longer time window for the negative effects of capture to resolve. As was recently shown in younger adults, the timing of disengagement from capture correlated with individual differences in visual working memory capacity in the older cohort. These results suggest that the larger impact by distraction on perceptual abilities in normal aging is not the result of a greater susceptibility to attentional capture by distraction, but rather the prolonged processing of distractors. © 2012 American Psychological Association. Source

Bauer R.,University of Regensburg | Bauer R.,Center for Biomedical Technology | Ratzinger S.,University of Regensburg | Ratzinger S.,Center for Biomedical Technology | And 7 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry

Glioblastomas are characterized by an intense local invasiveness that limits surgical resection. One mechanism by which glioma cells enforce their migration into brain tissue is reorganization of tumour associated extracellular matrix (ECM). Collagen XVI is a minor component of connective tissues. However, in glioblastoma tissue it is dramatically upregulated compared to the ECM of normal cortex. The aim of this study is to delineate tumour cell invasion and underlying mechanisms involving collagen XVI by using a siRNA mediated collagen XVI knockdown model in U87MG human glioblastoma cells. Knockdown of collagen XVI resulted in decreased invasiveness in Boyden chamber assays, and in a reduction of focal adhesion contact numbers per cell. Gene expression was upregulated for protocadherin 18 and downregulated for kindlin-1 and -2. Proliferation was not affected while flow cytometric analysis demonstrated reduced β1-integrin activation in collagen XVI knockdown cells. We suggest that in glioblastoma tissue collagen XVI may impair the cell-cell interaction in favour of enhancement of invasion. The modification of the β1-integrin activation pattern through collagen XVI might be a molecular mechanism to further augment the invasive phenotype of glioma cells. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of glioma cell invasion promoted by collagen XVI may provide novel cancer therapeutic approaches in neurooncology. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG. Source

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